The Forum on Microbial Threats was created in 1996 to provide a structured opportunity for discussion and scrutiny of criticaland possibly contentiousscientific and policy issues related to research on and the prevention, detection, surveillance, and responses to emerging, reemerging, and novel infectious diseases in humans, plants and animals as well as the microbiome in health and disease. Since its creation the topics and issues that have been examined and discussed by the Forum continue to be of major global public health importance. Through public debate and private consultation, the activities of the Forum strive to facilitate discussion and inquiry into the most challenging and cross- cutting sets of challenges within and across the spectrum of microbial threats. Activities of the Forum are designed to examine emerging as well as long-standing challenges in microbial ecology in health and disease. The Forum has been instrumental in changing the infectious disease paradigm from the only good bug is a dead bug to a more ecologically- informed view of the beneficial contributions of the microbiome in health maintenance and how these microbial communities influence and are influenced by their environmental context. The summary reports of Forum workshops have highlighted and often anticipated some of the most important infectious disease issues of the past decade, including the challenge of emerging fungal diseases and the persistent problem of antimicrobial resistance. Through dissemination to public leaders, private industry, and policymakers, these summary reports have served as useful and timely educational resources and records of these public discussions and deliberations. Today, the complexities and challenges posed by vector and non-vector borne diseases and the corresponding trends that contribute to their emergence and reemergence continue to confound the worlds public health, scientific, medical, pharmaceutical, and policymaking communities. The global vulnerability of human, plant, and animal populations has been increasingly recognized as a challenge not only to personal health, but also to public safety, economic stability and development, and national and international security. The realities of the unrelenting resurgence of once manageable diseases, the emergence of multidrug resistant infectious diseases, the emergence and spread of newly identified pathogens such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), the global challenge of multi-drug resistant microorganisms, the reemergence of vector-borne disease as a major, global, public health concern, and the emergence of the first global influenza pandemic of the 21st centuryH1N1serve as timely reminders of the continuing evolution of infectious diseases and their attendant impacts on human, plant, and animal healthdomestically and internationally. The activities of the Forum continue to track and anticipate these evolving challenges. As a result of such cross-sector dialogue, priority issues for infectious disease research and public health policy have been recognized;critical issues warranting further investigation have been identified;and there have been increased opportunities for more effective collaborations and dialogue between the private and public sectors represented on the Forum, as well as between the medical, veterinary, and plant disease communities. The Forums membership consists of individuals from a wide range of disciplines and organizations in the public and private sectors, including the public health, medical, pharmaceutical, veterinarian, academic science, agricultural, and environmental communities.

Public Health Relevance

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE C)t THF NII/ON.A/ ACADEMIES Clyde J. Behney The lnterim Leonard D. Schaeffer Executive Officer r trgusl 19, 2014 Stcrhcrr Ostloff, i t,l). , ctinu (,hicf Scicntist for Scicncc &Public Flealth liood ancl l)rug, dmir-listration I()903 Ncu'I lampshitc . r'cnuc ,'hirc ( )al<32, locnr 4212 Silvct Sprir.rr, NID 20993 Proposal No.: 1 00021 25-lll tVISllD I)car I_)r. ()stoff: Wc arc rlcascc to submit olrt: copy of thc rcvised proposal by the Lrsrirr-rtc of lVlcdicinc's (lONf) lrltumon i 4lctobial 'l'hrcats (tl-rc I'orum), rcquesting sLippolt from thc lrood ancl l)rug r dtninisttation for a fir.c-ycar cornrrritrncnt of $300,000 to thc ION{ l}oarcl on (lobalFlcalth bcgirrrring Sc-rtctnbet 1,20L4 tllrough r ugust 31,2019. 'fhe total cstimatccl cosr for thc ycar of tl-ris projcct is $1,339,842. Sincc its ctcatiot-t in 199, thc issucs and ptoblcrns associated rvith cmergillg) rccmcrging, ancnovcl infcctious discascs that l-ravc bccn explorcd by the liorum thc importance of thc mictobiorlc in health tnaintcnancc ar-rd cliscasc -and global public irealth prcr.ention--continue to bc of major importancc. 'I'htough public dcbatc and privatc consultation, thc activitics of thc lorum cr.rrtinuc rcr facilitatc cliscr-rssion and incuily into the tnost challenging and cross-cutting scts of issucs rvrthin acl across thc spccttttm of microbial thtcats. 'fhe continuing activitics and extcndecl convcrsations of thc liorunt havc rcsuitcd in nutnetous rvorkshop surnmary rn,rt,r that havc illun-rinatecl thc challcngcs in idclrtifcation ancl responses to crnuging and tcemcrging diseascs bctwccn aimals acl hrttnans rcgionaiiy and globall)'. It is anticipatcd that thc futlfeactivities of thc lorur rvill build ulon thc forrndations of its prcviolrs rvork. 'fhc lorunt's rvotl

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National Academy of Sciences
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