Cellular restriction of HIV infection in host cells reflects innate antiviral immunity. Monocytes are important immune sentinels and precursors of antigen presenting cells. Undifferentiated human monocytes are resistant to HIV infection despite the expression of HIV receptors. The mechanisms of postentry HIV restriction in monocytes are not fully understood. Given that monocyte-differentiated macrophages are permissive for productive HIV infection, it has been speculated that differentiation-dependent cellular cofactors in monocytes might be responsible for the anti-HIV activity. However, specific HIV restriction factors in monocytes remain to be identified. Our long-term goal is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the postentry HIV restriction in monocytes and to identify host factors that contribute to the restriction. Our preliminary studies indicate that i) HIV infection is profoundly blocked in monocytes freshly isolated from healthy donors despite efficient viral reverse transcription, while the nuclear import of HIV DNA is significantly impaired in HIV-infected monocytes;ii) The postentry HIV restriction does not correlate with the expression levels of a few HIV restriction factors reported in monocytes. Thus, we hypothesize that unidentified cellular factors in monocytes may account for the postentry restriction of HIV infection.
Two specific aims are proposed to test this hypothesis. 1). To explore the HIV restriction phenotype by cell fusion between primary monocytes and HIV-permissive CD4+ T cells. 2). To perform a genetic screen for potential HIV restriction factors from a cDNA library of undifferentiated monocytes. The research design and methods include cell-fusion-based HIV infection assays and a genetic analysis for potential HIV restriction factors in monocytes. The proposed studies will provide new insights into understanding of HIV interactions with monocytes.

Public Health Relevance

HIV infection is the leading killer worldwide among infectious diseases, incurring 2-3 million AIDS deaths annually. This proposal attempts to explore the mechanisms of HIV restriction in monocytes, which will help to understand host factor-HIV interactions and potentially aid in developing effective strategies to combat HIV infection.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Type
Exploratory/Developmental Grants (R21)
Project #
5R21AI078762-03
Application #
7849916
Study Section
AIDS Molecular and Cellular Biology Study Section (AMCB)
Program Officer
Salzwedel, Karl D
Project Start
2009-06-01
Project End
2012-05-31
Budget Start
2010-06-01
Budget End
2012-05-31
Support Year
3
Fiscal Year
2010
Total Cost
$228,750
Indirect Cost
Name
Ohio State University
Department
Veterinary Sciences
Type
Schools of Veterinary Medicine
DUNS #
832127323
City
Columbus
State
OH
Country
United States
Zip Code
43210
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de Silva, Suresh; Planelles, Vicente; Wu, Li (2012) Differential effects of Vpr on single-cycle and spreading HIV-1 infections in CD4+ T-cells and dendritic cells. PLoS One 7:e35385
Coon, Sirena; Wang, Danxin; Wu, Li (2012) Polymorphisms of the SAMHD1 gene are not associated with the infection and natural control of HIV type 1 in Europeans and African-Americans. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 28:1565-73
Zhang, Chiyu; de Silva, Suresh; Wang, Jian-Hua et al. (2012) Co-evolution of primate SAMHD1 and lentivirus Vpx leads to the loss of the vpx gene in HIV-1 ancestor. PLoS One 7:e37477
St Gelais, Corine; Wu, Li (2011) SAMHD1: a new insight into HIV-1 restriction in myeloid cells. Retrovirology 8:55
Wu, Li (2011) The role of monocyte-lineage cells in human immunodeficiency virus persistence: mechanisms and progress. Wei sheng wu yu gan ran 6:129-132
de Silva, Suresh; Wu, Li (2011) TRIM5 acts as more than a retroviral restriction factor. Viruses 3:1204-9
Coleman, Christopher M; Spearman, Paul; Wu, Li (2011) Tetherin does not significantly restrict dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 transmission and its expression is upregulated by newly synthesized HIV-1 Nef. Retrovirology 8:26
Raghavendra, Nidhanapati K; Shkriabai, Nikolozi; Graham, Robert Lj et al. (2010) Identification of host proteins associated with HIV-1 preintegration complexes isolated from infected CD4+ cells. Retrovirology 7:66

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