The proposed research will investigate short-term longitudinal change in a broad variety of cognitive variables, with particular emphasis on adults under the age of 60. Although previous studies have found little or no cognitive change in longitudinal comparisons involving young and middle-aged adults, this research will employ two methodological innovations, variable retest intervals and measurement bursts at each occasion, that will allow age effects to be distinguished from retest effects, and will increase sensitivity in the detection of change by taking into account normal short-term variability in performance. Among the primary questions to be investigated are whether age-related cognitive change begins early in adulthood, whether the changes in different cognitive variables are independent of one another and equally so at different periods in adulthood, and the degree to which factors such as one's cognitive or physical lifestyle moderate the amount of age change in different cognitive abilities at various periods in adulthood. Over 700 adults between 18 and 89 years of age who completed the same battery of 13 cognitive tests in 2001, 2002, and 2003 will be invited to participate in the project, as will two new samples of 300 adults each. Most of the participants will be assessed with a measurement burst design of three sessions within a period of about two weeks in either the first or second year of the project, and again in the either the third, fourth, or fifth year of the project. Mixed effects models will be used to obtain estimates of the age and retest components of change for each participant, and these estimates will be examined in terms of their correlations with one another, and with various individual difference characteristics.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Method to Extend Research in Time (MERIT) Award (R37)
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Special Emphasis Panel (NSS)
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King, Jonathan W
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University of Virginia
Schools of Arts and Sciences
United States
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La Fleur, Claire G; Salthouse, Timothy A (2014) Out of sight, out of mind? Relations between visual acuity and cognition. Psychon Bull Rev 21:1202-8
Salthouse, Timothy A; Soubelet, Andrea (2014) Heterogeneous ability profiles may be a unique indicator of impending cognitive decline. Neuropsychology 28:812-8
Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A; Oishi, Shigehiro (2014) Are there meaningful individual differences in temporal inconsistency in self-reported personality? Pers Individ Dif 70:200-205
Beitz, Kevin M; Salthouse, Timothy A; Davis, Hasker P (2014) Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task: From 5 to 89 years of age. J Exp Psychol Gen 143:1677-89
Salthouse, Timothy A (2014) Frequent assessments may obscure cognitive decline. Psychol Assess 26:1063-9
Salthouse, Timothy A (2014) Relations between Running Memory and Fluid Intelligence. Intelligence 43:1-7
Siedlecki, Karen L; Salthouse, Timothy A (2014) Using contextual analysis to investigate the nature of spatial memory. Psychon Bull Rev 21:721-7
Siedlecki, Karen L; Salthouse, Timothy A; Oishi, Shigehiro et al. (2014) The Relationship Between Social Support and Subjective Well-Being Across Age. Soc Indic Res 117:561-576
Salthouse, Timothy A (2014) Why are there different age relations in cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons of cognitive functioning? Curr Dir Psychol Sci 23:252-256
Salthouse, Timothy A (2013) Within-cohort age-related differences in cognitive functioning. Psychol Sci 24:123-30

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