The burden of tobacco use falls disproportionately on low-income populations, through high rates of primary smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. The remarkable progress in creating smoke-free environments in the U.S. over the past two decades has left smokers'homes as a significant source of exposure to secondhand smoke for both children and nonsmoking adults. Intervention research that identifies effective and practical strategies for reaching the minority of households that still allow smoking in the home has considerable potential to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke, but suitable channels to reach low-income families are limited. The proposed research will develop, evaluate and disseminate a brief smoke-free homes intervention through the established national infrastructure of 2-1-1 call centers. 2-1-1 is a nationally designated 3-digit telephone exchange, similar to 9-1-1 for emergencies or 4-1-1 for directory assistance, that links callers to community-based health and social services. Most 2-1-1 callers are low income. The proposed research has four specific aims: 1) Conduct formative research on intervention messages and materials for promoting smoke-free homes in low-income populations, applicable to both smokers and nonsmokers as household change agents;2) Conduct a randomized controlled trial in the Atlanta 2-1-1 service area to evaluate the efficacy of a brief intervention to create smoke-free homes among 2-1-1 callers;3) Conduct replication studies in Houston and North Carolina 2-1-1 systems to systematically test the intervention in varied populations and tobacco control climates;and 4) Disseminate the research tested smoke-free homes intervention through a national grants program to 2-1-1 systems and through the Tobacco Technical Assistance Consortium's linkages to the state and local tobacco control infrastructure in the U.S.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Research Project--Cooperative Agreements (U01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZCA1)
Program Officer
Grant, Yvonne F
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Emory University
Schools of Public Health
United States
Zip Code
Haardörfer, Regine; Berg, Carla J; Escoffery, Cam et al. (2017) Development of a scale assessing Beliefs About ThirdHand Smoke (BATHS). Tob Induc Dis 15:4
Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W; Caito, Nicole et al. (2017) Implementing an Evidence-based Tobacco Control Program at Five 2-1-1 Call Centers: An Evaluation Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Nicotine Tob Res :
Savas, Lara S; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Hovell, Melbourne F et al. (2017) A Qualitative Study Among Mexican Americans to Understand Factors Influencing the Adoption and Enforcement of Home Smoking Bans. Nicotine Tob Res 19:1465-1472
Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle et al. (2016) National and State-Specific Attitudes toward Smoke-Free Parks among U.S. Adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13:
Williams, Rebecca S; Stollings, Jana H; Bundy, ?ucja et al. (2016) A Minimal Intervention to Promote Smoke-Free Homes among 2-1-1 Callers: North Carolina Randomized Effectiveness Trial. PLoS One 11:e0165086
Kegler, Michelle C; Haard?rfer, Regine; Berg, Carla et al. (2016) Challenges in Enforcing Home Smoking Rules in a Low-Income Population: Implications for Measurement and Intervention Design. Nicotine Tob Res 18:976-81
Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Savas, Lara S; Bundy, ?ucja T et al. (2016) Minimal intervention delivered by 2-1-1 information and referral specialists promotes smoke-free homes among 2-1-1 callers: a Texas generalisation trial. Tob Control 25:i10-i18
Berg, Carla J; Zheng, Pinpin; Kegler, Michelle C (2016) Family Interactions Regarding Fathers' Smoking and Cessation in Shanghai, China. J Smok Cessat 11:199-202
Escoffery, Cam; Bundy, Lujca; Haardoerfer, Regine et al. (2016) A process evaluation of an intervention to promote home smoking bans among low income households. Eval Program Plann 55:120-5
Kruger, Judy; Patel, Roshni; Kegler, Michelle et al. (2016) Perceptions of harm from secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. adults, 2009-2010. Tob Induc Dis 14:3

Showing the most recent 10 out of 26 publications