Robust systems to consent, screen, return results, and to evaluate processes and outcomes of incorporating genomic risk information in clinical care for common chronic diseases are missing and urgently needed. We propose that hypertension-associated CKD in African ancestry communities has emerged as a highly relevant and well-suited opportunity for a 'prototype'genomic medicine demonstration project that addresses common chronic illnesses managed in primary care settings. African ancestry populations with hypertension (HTN) have 2- to 3-fold higher risk of developing CKD, and a 5-fold increased risk to progress to end stage renal disease (ESRD) when compared with whites. Recent discoveries demonstrate that testable alleles of the APOL1 locus on chromosome 22 have a major effect on and explain almost all of the excess risk for hypertension-associated CKD and its progression to ESRD in African ancestry populations. In this genomic medicine demonstration pilot project, we plan to implement a cluster randomized trial at primary care facilities of a network of community health centers in Harlem and the Bronx and at Mount Sinai Medical Center. The trial will test whether the desperately low probabilities of correct renal care i.e. appropriate ordering of tests to evaluate CKD and CKD progression, appropriate prescription of renoprotective renin angiotensin blockade, appropriate control of blood pressure in hypertensive patients with albuminuria of African ancestry, will be improved significantly in those facilities that receive EMR-enabled renal care CDS incorporating APOL1 genomic risk information compared with those facilities that receive renal care CDS based on conventional risk information only. The project will have three Specific Aims: 1) Understand knowledge, attitudes, beliefs about testing for APOL1, returning results, and engaging people of African ancestry and their clinicians into a process of testing, counseling and appropriate clinical care. 2) Develop systems and evidence-based advice messages to enable point of care Clinical Decision Support (CDS) for primary care providers advising renal care practice guidelines with our without genomic APOL1 risk information. 3) Conduct a cluster randomized trial assigning eight distinct primary care facilities to receive either renal care CDS with APOL1 genomic risk information (GENOMIC RENAL CARE FACILITY) or with conventional risk information (CONVENTIONAL RENAL CARE FACILITY) to guide primary care for non-diabetic African Americans with hypertension. In the long-term, the proposed genomic medicine demonstration pilot project is expected to generate essential new insights for sustainable adoption and large-scale dissemination of genomic medicine in diverse clinical settings providing care for common adult-onset diseases in general, and for underserved African Ancestry populations with large excess burden of non-diabetic kidney diseases specifically.
We will conduct a randomized trial in a network of community health centers and primary care facilities to study the effects and challenges of incorporating genomic risk information in clinical care for patients of African ancestry with hypertension that are at risk for or have chronic kidney disease. The study will provide information whether patients at primary care facilities where genomic risk information for kidney disease is shared between providers and patients, and patients have different outcomes than patients in facilities where genomic risk information is not shared. This pilot project will create new insights on how genomic medicine approaches will be adopted and whether they can make a difference to improve primary care for hypertensive kidney disease in underserved minorities.