Human malaria is exclusively vectored by anopheline mosquitoes. In southern Africa the most important of these vector species are An. arabiensis, An. gambiae, and An. funestus, with An. arabiensis having a wider range and considerably greater ecological and biological plasficity. The relafive distribution and abundance of these vectors vary ecologically and geographically. The study sites targeted in this proposal not only reflect differences in malaria transmission biology and intensity, but also ecological differences that affect these vector differences. Transmission biology is largely affected by mosquito behavior and their response to mosquito-based control measures such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). ITNs are widely distributed throughout south Africa and represent an enormous investment. ITNs not only provide a physical barrier to mosquitoes, but it is also well known that ITNs repel insects, encouraging mosquitoes to feed on alternative hosts. In some areas of southern Africa, however, mosquitoes have continued to almost exclusively target human hosts, despite the distribution and use of ITNs. Recent data from West Africa have shown that in some areas the repellency, typically induced by ITN use, fails and resistant mosquitoes are not deterred from taking human blood meals. Therefore, understanding the bionomics, foraging behavior, levels of insecficide resistance and population genetics and distribufion are integral for guiding selecfion and implementation of effective and appropriate malaria interventions within the southern African region.
Aim 1) Characterize the bionomics and entomological inoculafion rates (EIR) of malaria vectors in each of the three study sites. Characterize the community structure of malaria vector populations in southern Africa and further characterize the feeding and resfing behavior of Anopheles arabiensis in southern Africa.
Aim 2) Survey insecticide susceptibility of vector populations at all three field sites and to determine the mechanisms of insecficide resistance.
Aim 3) Conduct populafion genefic analysis of Anopheles arabiensis populafions using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers.
The goals of this project are to gain an understanding of the population biology, feeding behavior and levels of insecticide resistance of mosquitoes that transmit malaria in southern Africa. This knowledge will help guide the selection and implementation of effective and appropriate malaria interventions within the southern African region.
|Kanyangarara, Mufaro; Hamapumbu, Harry; Mamini, Edmore et al. (2018) Malaria knowledge and bed net use in three transmission settings in southern Africa. Malar J 17:41|
|Zawada, Jacek W; Dahan-Moss, Yael L; Muleba, Mbanga et al. (2018) Molecular and physiological analysis of Anopheles funestus swarms in Nchelenge, Zambia. Malar J 17:49|
|Jones, Christine M; Lee, Yoosook; Kitchen, Andrew et al. (2018) Complete Anopheles funestus mitogenomes reveal an ancient history of mitochondrial lineages and their distribution in southern and central Africa. Sci Rep 8:9054|
|Pringle, Julia C; Carpi, Giovanna; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob et al. (2018) RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine mismatch observed among Plasmodium falciparum isolates from southern and central Africa and globally. Sci Rep 8:6622|
|Searle, Kelly M; Lubinda, Jailos; Hamapumbu, Harry et al. (2017) Characterizing and quantifying human movement patterns using GPS data loggers in an area approaching malaria elimination in rural southern Zambia. R Soc Open Sci 4:170046|
|Searle, Kelly M; Katowa, Ben; Kobayashi, Tamaki et al. (2017) Distinct parasite populations infect individuals identified through passive and active case detection in a region of declining malaria transmission in southern Zambia. Malar J 16:154|
|Gibson, Lauren E; Markwalter, Christine F; Kimmel, Danielle W et al. (2017) Plasmodium falciparum HRP2 ELISA for analysis of dried blood spot samples in rural Zambia. Malar J 16:350|
|Ippolito, Matthew M; Searle, Kelly M; Hamapumbu, Harry et al. (2017) House Structure Is Associated with Plasmodium falciparum Infection in a Low-Transmission Setting in Southern Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 97:1561-1567|
|Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Searle, Kelly; Matakala, Hellen K et al. (2017) Measles and Rubella Seroprevalence Among HIV-infected and Uninfected Zambian Youth. Pediatr Infect Dis J 36:301-306|
|Das, Smita; Muleba, Mbanga; Stevenson, Jennifer C et al. (2017) Beyond the entomological inoculation rate: characterizing multiple blood feeding behavior and Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity of infection in Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Zambia. Parasit Vectors 10:45|
Showing the most recent 10 out of 61 publications