The overall objective of this International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research (ICEMR) in the SE Asia region is to advance knowledge of how national and regional programs to control and eliminate malaria in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Solomon Islands and Vanuatu affect the epidemiology, transmission and pathogenesis/immunity of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Infection and morbidity in 3 distinct endemic settings which represent a wide spectrum of malaria endemicity (holoendemic in mainland PNG, meso/hypoendemic in East New Britain PNG, and hypoendemic in Western Province, Solomon Islands). A related goal is to build local capacity and infrastructure to monitor, evaluate and guide ongoing and future malaria interventions used by national health authorities in the region. Transmission and Pathogenesis/immunity Research Projects 2 and 3 are integrated with Epidemiology Project 1 that will evaluate in all three endemic sites the changing patterns of malaria infection and disease that result from progressive deployment of similar malaria interventions - free universal long lasting insecticide treated bed nets and rapid evidence based diagnosis of malaria and treatment with artemether-lumefantrine. Research and infrastructure enhancing activities will be served by GCP compliant Database/Biostatistics and Molecular Diagnostics Cores. Unique features of the program include the potential for gaining novel insight into the control of P. vivax relative to P. falciparum given the anticipated greater resilience of the former to control and elimination, improvement of the meager knowledge of anophelines that transmit malaria in this region of SE Asia and the Pacific (primarily An. punctulatus), appreciation of how diminishing transmission affects P. falciparum and P. vivax genetics, and greater understanding of the significance of continuing exposure as a prerequisite for developing and maintaining naturally acquired immunity against malaria and the impact of various interventions on immune-mediated protection. An advantage of an ICEMR in this site Is the opportunity to rapidly transfer research findings to the monitoring, evaluation and implementation goals of national malaria control programs. Synergy among the ICEMR projects and cores and incorporation ICEMR findings into national programs will help answer unresolved key issues related to malaria control and elimination locally and in the SE Asia region.

Public Health Relevance

Research and capacity building activities of this program will be useful to health officials and other stakeholders in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu who are responsible for implementing, monitoring and evaluating malaria interventions that are intended to control malaria (reduce the burden of disease due to Plasmodium spp. in PNG) and ultimately, eliminate malaria (stop transmission by the mosquito vector locally in Solomon Islands and Vanuatu).

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Type
Research Program--Cooperative Agreements (U19)
Project #
5U19AI089686-03
Application #
8293259
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1-AWA-M (M2))
Program Officer
Rao, Malla R
Project Start
2010-07-01
Project End
2017-06-30
Budget Start
2012-07-01
Budget End
2013-06-30
Support Year
3
Fiscal Year
2012
Total Cost
$1,175,567
Indirect Cost
$208,405
Name
Case Western Reserve University
Department
Pathology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
077758407
City
Cleveland
State
OH
Country
United States
Zip Code
44106
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Echeverry, Diego F; Deason, Nicholas A; Davidson, Jenna et al. (2016) Human malaria diagnosis using a single-step direct-PCR based on the Plasmodium cytochrome oxidase III gene. Malar J 15:128
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Russell, Tanya L; Beebe, Nigel W; Bugoro, Hugo et al. (2016) Anopheles farauti is a homogeneous population that blood feeds early and outdoors in the Solomon Islands. Malar J 15:151
Russell, Tanya L; Beebe, Nigel W; Bugoro, Hugo et al. (2016) Frequent blood feeding enables insecticide-treated nets to reduce transmission by mosquitoes that bite predominately outdoors. Malar J 15:156
Guo, Suqin; He, Lishan; Tisch, Daniel J et al. (2016) Pilot testing of dipsticks as point-of-care assays for rapid diagnosis of poor-quality artemisinin drugs in endemic settings. Trop Med Health 44:15
Russell, Tanya L; Burkot, Thomas R; Bugoro, Hugo et al. (2016) Larval habitats of the Anopheles farauti and Anopheles lungae complexes in the Solomon Islands. Malar J 15:164
Jain, Aarti; Taghavian, Omid; Vallejo, Derek et al. (2016) Evaluation of quantum dot immunofluorescence and a digital CMOS imaging system as an alternative to conventional organic fluorescence dyes and laser scanning for quantifying protein microarrays. Proteomics 16:1271-9

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