The assays that have been applied to measure the latent reservoir in studies performed to date have been imprecise, in some cases non-specific, and in all cases near the threshold of detection for specimens obtained from subjects effectively treated with antiretroviral therapy. A successful Collaboratory effort to eradicate the latent reservoir must have assays available that can reliably quantify this reservoir and measure reductions in its size. In Project 4.1, superior assays in development for integrated viral DNA and for viral infectivity will be refined and validated for HIV, and then applied to both the SIV and RT-SHIV macaque models. They will then be applied to in vitro models of latency and to cells and tissues obtained from infected macaques and HIV-infected study subjects, as part of other Collaboratory research projects. Microfluidic applications to these assays will address the question of the representativeness of the proviral reservoir for replication-competent virus and try to explain some of the mechanisms for replication in competent virus. The presence of HIV DNA and infectivity in blood macrophages, as a potential reservoir, will also be examined. These studies to improve measurements of the latent reservoir and interventions to purge it will involve close interactions and the exchange of methods and materials with several of the project and core Collaboratory investigators.

Public Health Relevance

Assays are inadequate to measure the latent reservoir and the effect of treatments to reduce it. This project with refine innovative new assays to address this problem and then apply them to projects in the Collaboratory. In addition with innovative microfluidic technology this project will address the relationship of HIV DNA integrated in host cells and infectious virus in this latent reservoir.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Type
Research Program--Cooperative Agreements (U19)
Project #
5U19AI096113-03
Application #
8497440
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1-JBS-A)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
2013-07-01
Budget End
2014-06-30
Support Year
3
Fiscal Year
2013
Total Cost
$373,302
Indirect Cost
$23,254
Name
University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
Department
Type
DUNS #
608195277
City
Chapel Hill
State
NC
Country
United States
Zip Code
27599
Honeycutt, Jenna B; Sheridan, Patricia A; Matsushima, Glenn K et al. (2015) Humanized mouse models for HIV-1 infection of the CNS. J Neurovirol 21:301-9
King, Helen L; Keller, Samuel B; Giancola, Michael A et al. (2014) Pre-exposure prophylaxis accessibility research and evaluation (PrEPARE Study). AIDS Behav 18:1722-5
Manson McManamy, Mary E; Hakre, Shweta; Verdin, Eric M et al. (2014) Therapy for latent HIV-1 infection: the role of histone deacetylase inhibitors. Antivir Chem Chemother 23:145-9
Spivak, Adam M; Andrade, Adriana; Eisele, Evelyn et al. (2014) A pilot study assessing the safety and latency-reversing activity of disulfiram in HIV-1-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 58:883-90
Duverger, Alexandra; Wolschendorf, Frank; Anderson, Joshua C et al. (2014) Kinase control of latent HIV-1 infection: PIM-1 kinase as a major contributor to HIV-1 reactivation. J Virol 88:364-76
Denton, Paul W; Long, Julie M; Wietgrefe, Stephen W et al. (2014) Targeted cytotoxic therapy kills persisting HIV infected cells during ART. PLoS Pathog 10:e1003872
Abreu, Celina M; Price, Sarah L; Shirk, Erin N et al. (2014) Dual role of novel ingenol derivatives from Euphorbia tirucalli in HIV replication: inhibition of de novo infection and activation of viral LTR. PLoS One 9:e97257
Archin, Nancie M; Margolis, David M (2014) Emerging strategies to deplete the HIV reservoir. Curr Opin Infect Dis 27:29-35
Liu, Pingyang; Xiang, Yanhui; Fujinaga, Koh et al. (2014) Release of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) from 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) activates hexamethylene bisacetamide-inducible protein (HEXIM1) transcription. J Biol Chem 289:9918-25
Persaud, Deborah; Patel, Kunjal; Karalius, Brad et al. (2014) Influence of age at virologic control on peripheral blood human immunodeficiency virus reservoir size and serostatus in perinatally infected adolescents. JAMA Pediatr 168:1138-46

Showing the most recent 10 out of 77 publications