At the time of submission of the orginal ALS iPS Go Grant, there were no well-validated protocols for generating astroglia from human ES or IPS cell lines, although approaches from rodent cells existed. Fortunately, we were able to develop a reliable protocol in both the Henderson lab and the Rothstein labs (Figure 5A). We now have a protocol that works identically in both labs?with very similar efficiency at differentiation between labs. We have also been able to detect evidence of true astroglial maturation in a number of lines that have advanced sufficiently and these express appropriate astroglial specific proteins and have functional glutamate transport (Figure 5B-D).
|Wainger, Brian J; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Mellin, Cassidy et al. (2014) Intrinsic membrane hyperexcitability of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient-derived motor neurons. Cell Rep 7:1-11|
|Kiskinis, Evangelos; Sandoe, Jackson; Williams, Luis A et al. (2014) Pathways disrupted in human ALS motor neurons identified through genetic correction of mutant SOD1. Cell Stem Cell 14:781-95|