In order to better protect (or prepare) for a catastrophic disaster, key sectors must be identified across the nation that may be highly vulnerable, likely targets or produce catastrophic results if damaged, and then reasonable steps taken to prepare for possible outcomes. Resources need to be developed well before any event and coordinated with the National Incident Management System in order to effecfively and safely respond. This proposal concentrates in three areas: 1) protecting hospital based First Receivers who would handle contaminated victims of disasters;2) conduct Plume Software classes to workers, trainers, firefighters and FEMA;3) further develop trainers to deliver Disaster Site Worker, Mass Casualty First Receiver and Workplace Shelter in Place programs;and 3) building joint grantee projects. A 2005 article by Chemical Safety Board staff on the Bhopal disaster identifies one of the systemic problems as """"""""ineffecfive worker training'which remain """"""""underiying causes of many incidents"""""""" (3). Both intenfional acts or natural disasters have similar solutions to address both situations. Other systemic problems are """"""""lack of awareness of reacfive hazards, lack of management of change, inadequate maintenance, ineffective emergency preparedness and lack of root cause incident investigations and communication of lessons learned"""""""". A 2006 survey of chemical plants documented the lack of adequate training, procedures, response drills and notificafion of health personnel for terrorist incidents (9). This proposal offers training in a number of areas which addresses these needs.

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Mahan, Bruce; Morawetz, John; Ruttenberg, Ruth et al. (2013) Workplace safety and health improvements through a labor/management training and collaboration. New Solut 23:561-76
Becker, Paul; Morawetz, John (2004) Impacts of health and safety education: comparison of worker activities before and after training. Am J Ind Med 46:63-70
McQuiston, T H; Coleman, P; Wallerstein, N B et al. (1994) Hazardous waste worker education. Long-term effects. J Occup Med 36:1310-23