I. African American recruitment into health research. The participation of all underrepresented groups in health research is a critical. Some note it to be the link between innovation and improvements in health. A series of national inifiafives have addressed this issue, beginning with the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993, which requires applicants of federal research funding to provide a strategy for inclusion of women and minorities Into clinical trials (140). Despite our best efforts, racial/ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in health research. Between 1993 and 2002, the budget of the NCI doubled, and clinical trial accrual increased (146). However, only 2.5% of cancer patients are enrolled into trials and many subgroups are underrepresented including AA men and individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) (147). This lack of diversity contributes to inequitable distribution of benefits and risks of trial participation (which some argue is a component of state-of-the-art cancer care) (148). Racial differences in access to care contribute to disparities in cancer mortality;however, these disparities are attenuated when all racial/ethnic groups receive similar cancer treatment for same stage disease (i49,150). Many studies have found it more difficult to recruit AA men into health research studies (144,15i-i53). Various strategies have been utilized with mixed results including recruiting AA men in barber shops (154-156) and in faith-based institutions (145). While many studies investigating minority participation have focused solely on the efficacy of the recruitment methodology, at least one study suggests that characteristics of the study design may be more influential in affecfing an individual's decision to participate (157).

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