The first step in virus replication is entry. The mechanisms used by poxviruses are complicated by the existence of two distinct infectious forms with different external membranes. Another complicating factor is the ability of vaccinia virus to enter cells through the plasma membrane and by endocytosis. We have identified a complex comprised of at least 12 proteins that are required for entry of both virus forms. These proteins are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family, suggesting a common entry mechanism.

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Laliberte, Jason P; Moss, Bernard (2014) A novel mode of poxvirus superinfection exclusion that prevents fusion of the lipid bilayers of viral and cellular membranes. J Virol 88:9751-68
Satheshkumar, P S; Chavre, James; Moss, Bernard (2013) Role of the vaccinia virus O3 protein in cell entry can be fulfilled by its Sequence flexible transmembrane domain. Virology 444:148-57
Wagenaar, Timothy R; Moss, Bernard (2009) Expression of the A56 and K2 proteins is sufficient to inhibit vaccinia virus entry and cell fusion. J Virol 83:1546-54
Bengali, Zain; Townsley, Alan C; Moss, Bernard (2009) Vaccinia virus strain differences in cell attachment and entry. Virology 389:132-40
Bisht, Himani; Weisberg, Andrea S; Moss, Bernard (2008) Vaccinia virus l1 protein is required for cell entry and membrane fusion. J Virol 82:8687-94