Prediction of protein-protein interactions at the structural level on the proteome scale is important because it allows prediction of protein function, helps drug discovery and takes steps toward genome-wide structural systems biology. We provide a protocol (termed PRISM, protein interactions by structural matching) for large-scale prediction of protein-protein interactions and assembly of protein complex structures. The method consists of two components, rigid-body structural comparisons of target proteins to known template protein-protein interfaces and flexible refinement using a docking energy function. The PRISM rationale follows our observation that globally different protein structures can interact via similar architectural motifs. PRISM predicts binding residues by using structural similarity and evolutionary conservation of putative binding residue hot spots. Ultimately, PRISM could help to construct cellular pathways and functional, proteome-scale annotation. PRISM is implemented in Python and runs in a UNIX environment. The program accepts Protein Data Bank-formatted protein structures.The similarity between folding and binding led us to posit the concept that the number of protein-protein interface motifs in nature is limited, and interacting protein pairs can use similar interface architectures repeatedly, even if their global folds completely vary. Thus, known protein-protein interface architectures can be used to model the complexes between two target proteins on the proteome scale, even if their global structures differ. This powerful concept is combined with a flexible refinement and global energy assessment tool. The accuracy of the method is highly dependent on the structural diversity of the interface architectures in the template dataset. Here, we validate this knowledge-based combinatorial method on the Docking Benchmark and show that it efficiently finds high-quality models for benchmark complexes and their binding regions even in the absence of template interfaces having sequence similarity to the targets. Compared to classical docking, it is computationally faster;as the number of target proteins increases, the difference becomes more dramatic. Further, it is able to distinguish binders from nonbinders. These features allow performing large-scale network modeling. The results on an independent target set (proteins in the p53 molecular interaction map) show that current method can be used to predict whether a given protein pair interacts. Overall, while constrained by the diversity of the template set, this approach efficiently produces high-quality models of protein-protein complexes. We expect that with the growing number of known interface architectures, this type of knowledge-based methods will be increasingly used by the broad proteomics community.Networks are increasingly used to study the impact of drugs at the systems level. From the algorithmic standpoint, a drug can attack nodes or edges of a protein-protein interaction network. In this work, we propose a new network strategy, The Interface Attack, based on protein-protein interfaces. Similar interface architectures can occur between unrelated proteins. Consequently, in principle, a drug that binds to one has a certain probability of binding others. The interface attack strategy simultaneously removes from the network all interactions that consist of similar interface motifs. This strategy is inspired by network pharmacology and allows inferring potential off-targets. We introduce a network model which we call Protein Interface and Interaction Network (P2IN), which is the integration of protein-protein interface structures and protein interaction networks. This interface-based network organization clarifies which protein pairs have structurally similar interfaces, and which proteins may compete to bind the same surface region. We built the P2IN of p53 signaling network and performed network robustness analysis. We show that (1) hitting frequent interfaces (a set of edges distributed around the network) might be as destructive as eleminating high degree proteins (hub nodes), (2) frequent interfaces are not always topologically critical elements in the network, and (3) interface attack may reveal functional changes in the system better than attack of single proteins. In the off-target detection case study, we found that drugs blocking the interface between CDK6 and CDKN2D may also affect the interaction between CDK4 and CDKN2D.Conformational selection emerges as a theme in macromolecular interactions. Data validate it as a prevailing mechanism in protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA, and protein-small molecule drug recognition. This raises the question of whether this fundamental biomolecular binding mechanism can be used to improve drug docking and discovery. Actually, in practice this has already been taking place for some years in increasing numbers. Essentially, it argues for using not a single conformer, but an ensemble. The paradigm of conformational selection holds that because the ensemble is heterogeneous, within it there will be states whose conformation matches that of the ligand. Even if the population of this state is low, since it is favorable for binding the ligand, it will bind to it with a subsequent population shift toward this conformer. Here we suggest expanding it by first modeling all protein interactions in the cell by using Prism, an efficient motif-based protein-protein interaction modeling strategy, followed by ensemble generation. Such a strategy could be particularly useful for signaling proteins, which are major targets in drug discovery and bind multiple partners through a shared binding site, each with some-minor or major-conformational change.

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National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Maximova, Tatiana; Moffatt, Ryan; Ma, Buyong et al. (2016) Principles and Overview of Sampling Methods for Modeling Macromolecular Structure and Dynamics. PLoS Comput Biol 12:e1004619
Ma, Buyong; Zhao, Jun; Nussinov, Ruth (2016) Conformational selection in amyloid-based immunotherapy: Survey of crystal structures of antibody-amyloid complexes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1860:2672-81
Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung (2015) The design of covalent allosteric drugs. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 55:249-67
Clausen, Rudy; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth et al. (2015) Mapping the Conformation Space of Wildtype and Mutant H-Ras with a Memetic, Cellular, and Multiscale Evolutionary Algorithm. PLoS Comput Biol 11:e1004470
Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung (2015) 'Latent drivers' expand the cancer mutational landscape. Curr Opin Struct Biol 32:25-32
Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung (2015) Allostery without a conformational change? Revisiting the paradigm. Curr Opin Struct Biol 30:17-24
Kuzu, Guray; Keskin, Ozlem; Nussinov, Ruth et al. (2014) Modeling protein assemblies in the proteome. Mol Cell Proteomics 13:887-96
Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung (2014) Free energy diagrams for protein function. Chem Biol 21:311-8
Acuner Ozbabacan, Saliha Ece; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth et al. (2014) The structural pathway of interleukin 1 (IL-1) initiated signaling reveals mechanisms of oncogenic mutations and SNPs in inflammation and cancer. PLoS Comput Biol 10:e1003470
Engin, H Billur; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth et al. (2014) Network-based strategies can help mono- and poly-pharmacology drug discovery: a systems biology view. Curr Pharm Des 20:1201-7

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