We have shown that in cells, a nuclear protein PTIP and a novel protein PA1 are both subunits of a Set1-like histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex (i.e. MLL3/MLL4 complex) that contains H3K4 methyltransferases MLL3 and MLL4 (also known as ALR and MLL2), and the JmjC domain-containing histone H3K27 demethylase UTX (Cho, Y.-W., et al., J. Biol. Chem., 2007. 282: p. 20395-20406;Hong, S., et al., PNAS, 2007. 104: p. 18439-18444).Further, we found that histone methylation regulator PTIP is essential for the robust induction of PPARgamma and C/EBPa, the two principal adipogenic transcription factors, during adipogenesis. Accordingly, PTIP-/- cells show striking defects in adipogenesis. Thus, by regulating PPARgamma and C/EBPa expression, PTIP plays a critical role in adipogenesis (Cho, Y.W., et al., Cell Metab, 2009. 10(1): p. 27-39). Methylation on H3K4 is an activating epigenetic mark while methylation on H3K27 is a repressive one. Based on our finding that H3K4 methyltransferases MLL3/MLL4 physically associate with H3K27 demethylase UTX, we propose that by adding an activating epigenetic mark and removing a repressive one, the MLL3/MLL4 complex may use two distinct histone modifying activities to synergistically activate target gene expression. We are currently investigating whether the PTIP-associated H3K4 methyltransferases MLL3 and MLL4, H3K27 demethylase UTX, and a novel protein PA1, are involved in the regulation of PPARgamma expression and/or adipogenesis. We have found that H3K27 demethylases UTX and Jmjd3 are dispensable for adipogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

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