A variety of service and collaborative projects in protein characterization have been or are being carried out with the Protein Microcharacterization Core Facility (PMCF) with approximately 6000 samples analyzed from 60 scientists representing 27 principle investigators from 8 laboratory branches. One large effort is in support of the Protein Expression Core Facility (PECF) and Dr. Bob Petrovich. The Role of the PMCF is to confirm gene expression at the protein level prior to the PECF handing materials over to their users. Other unpublished projects that are still ongoing include: Identification of binding partners and sites of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on lipid and inositol kinases - Steve Shears Identification of proteins in the BAF complexes from a variety of tissue types and/or conditions - Trevor Archer Glis family members modifications and binding partners Anton Jetten Other recently published projects or projects in press include: Enolase: Sperm utilize glycolysis to generate ATP required for motility, and several spermatogenic cell-specific glycolytic isozymes are associated with the fibrous sheath (FS) in the principal piece of the sperm flagellum. We used proteomics and molecular biology approaches to confirm earlier reports that a novel enolase is present in mouse sperm. We then found that a pan-enolase antibody, but not antibodies to ENO2 and ENO3, recognized a protein in the principal piece of the mouse sperm flagellum. Database analyses identified two previously uncharacterized enolase family-like candidate genes, 64306537H0Rik and Gm5506. Northern analysis indicated that 64306537H0Rik (renamed Eno4) was transcribed in testes of mice by Postnatal Day 12. To determine the role of ENO4, we generated mice using embryonic stem cells in which an Eno4 allele was disrupted and male mice homozygous for the disrupted allele were infertile. Epididymal sperm numbers were 2-fold lower and sperm motility was reduced substantially compared to wild-type mice. Sperm from these mice had a coiled flagellum and a disorganized FS. The Gm5506 gene encodes a protein identical to ENO1 and also is transcribed at a low level in testis. We conclude that ENO4 is required for normal assembly of the FS and provides most of the enolase activity in sperm and that Eno1 and/or Gm5506 may encode a minor portion of the enolase activity in sperm. -Mitch Eddy TARG1: Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation is a post-translational protein modification implicated in the regulation of a range of cellular processes. A family of proteins that catalyse ADP-ribosylation reactions are PARPs. PARPs covalently attach an ADP-ribose nucleotide to target proteins and some PARP family members can subsequently add additional ADP-ribose units to generate a PAR chain. The hydrolysis of PAR chains is catalysed by PARG. PARG is unable to cleave the mono(ADP-ribose) unit directly linked to the protein and although the enzymatic activity that catalyses this reaction has been detected in mammalian cell extracts, the protein(s) responsible remain unknown. Here, we report the homozygous mutation of the c6orf130 gene in patients with severe neurodegeneration, and identify C6orf130 as a PARP-interacting protein that removes mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation on glutamate amino acid residues in PARP-modified proteins. X-ray structures and biochemical analysis of C6orf130 suggest a mechanism of catalytic reversal involving a transient C6orf130 lysyl-(ADP-ribose) intermediate. Furthermore, depletion of C6orf130 protein in cells leads to proliferation and DNA repair defects. Collectively, our data suggest that C6orf130 enzymatic activity has a role in the turnover and recycling of protein ADP-ribosylation, and we have implicated the importance of this protein in supporting normal cellular function in humans. R. Scott Williams XRCC1: PARP-1 binds intermediates of base excision repair (BER) and becomes activated for PAR synthesis. PAR mediates recruitment and functions of the key BER factors XRCC1 and DNA pol that in turn regulate PAR. Yet, the molecular mechanism and implications of coordination between XRCC1 and pol in regulating the level of PAR are poorly understood. A complex of PARP-1, XRCC1 and pol is found in vivo, and it is known that pol and XRCC1 interact through a redox-sensitive binding interface in the N-terminal domain of XRCC1. We confirmed here that both oxidized and reduced forms of XRCC1 are present in mouse fibroblasts. To further understand the importance of the C12-C20 oxidized form of XRCC1 and the interaction with pol , we characterized cell lines representing stable transfectants in Xrcc1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts of wild-type XRCC1 and two mutants of XRCC1, a novel reduced form with the C12-C20 disulfide bond blocked (C12A) and a reference mutant that is unable to bind pol (V88R). XRCC1-deficient mouse fibroblasts are extremely hypersensitive to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), and transfected wild-type and C12A mutant XRCC1 proteins similarly reversed MMS hypersensitivity. However, after MMS exposure the cellular PAR level was found to increase to a much greater extent in cells expressing the C12A mutant than in cells expressing wild-type XRCC1. PARP inhibition resulted in very strong MMS sensitization in cells expressing wild-type XRCC1, but this sensitization was much less in cells expressing the C12A mutant. The results suggest a role for the oxidized form of XRCC1 in the interaction with pol in (1) controlling the PAR level after MMS exposure and (2) enabling the extreme cytotoxicity of PARP inhibition during the MMS DNA damage response. Sam Wilson Pol beta: During mammalian base excision repair (BER) of lesion-containing DNA, it is proposed that toxic strand-break intermediates generated throughout the pathway are sequestered and passed from one step to the next until repair is complete. This stepwise process is termed substrate channeling. A working model evaluated here is that a complex of BER factors may facilitate the BER process. FLAG-tagged pol was expressed in mouse fibroblasts carrying a deletion in the endogenous pol gene, and the cell extract was subjected to an 'affinity-capture'procedure using anti-FLAG antibody. The pol affinity-capture fraction (ACF) was found to contain several BER factors including polymerase-1, X-ray cross-complementing factor1-DNA ligase III and enzymes involved in processing 3'-blocked ends of BER intermediates, e.g. polynucleotide kinase and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1. In contrast, DNA glycosylases, apurinic/aprymidinic endonuclease 1 and flap endonuclease 1 and several other factors involved in BER were not present. Some of the BER factors in the pol ACF were in a multi-protein complex as observed by sucrose gradient centrifugation. The pol ACF was capable of substrate channeling for steps in vitro BER and was proficient in in vitro repair of substrates mimicking a 3'-blocked topoisomerase I covalent intermediate or an oxidative stress-induced 3'-blocked intermediate. Sam Wilson Two additional manuscripts are in press. One on the role of advanced glycation end products on peanut allergen proteins and their interactions with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (Mueller and London) and the other on the location and role of phosphorylation of the drosophilla gag protein (J. Mason). Additional projects that have required more than negligible resources include efforts performed with the Adelman, Armstrong, Blackshear, Cidlowski, Hall, Hu, and R.S. Williams laboratories.

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Johnson, Katina L; Williams, Jason G; Maleki, Soheila J et al. (2016) Enhanced Approaches for Identifying Amadori Products: Application to Peanut Allergens. J Agric Food Chem 64:1406-13
Schellenberg, Matthew J; Perera, Lalith; Strom, Christina N et al. (2016) Reversal of DNA damage induced Topoisomerase 2 DNA-protein crosslinks by Tdp2. Nucleic Acids Res 44:3829-44
Yong, Sheila T; Nguyen, Hoai-Nghia; Choi, Jae H et al. (2015) Identification of a functional nuclear translocation sequence in hPPIP5K2. BMC Cell Biol 16:17
ZeRuth, Gary T; Williams, Jason G; Cole, Yasemin C et al. (2015) HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Itch Functions as a Novel Negative Regulator of Gli-Similar 3 (Glis3) Transcriptional Activity. PLoS One 10:e0131303
Sharma, Nilesh K; Kumar, Ashutosh; Kumari, Amrita et al. (2015) Nitric Oxide Down-Regulates Topoisomerase I and Induces Camptothecin Resistance in Human Breast MCF-7 Tumor Cells. PLoS One 10:e0141897
Prasad, Rajendra; Dyrkheeva, Nadezhda; Williams, Jason et al. (2015) Mammalian Base Excision Repair: Functional Partnership between PARP-1 and APE1 in AP-Site Repair. PLoS One 10:e0124269
Martin, Negin P; Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Ezequiel; Mizuno, Fengxia et al. (2014) A rapid cytoplasmic mechanism for PI3 kinase regulation by the nuclear thyroid hormone receptor, TRβ, and genetic evidence for its role in the maturation of mouse hippocampal synapses in vivo. Endocrinology 155:3713-24
Nakamura, Noriko; Dai, Qunsheng; Williams, Jason et al. (2013) Disruption of a spermatogenic cell-specific mouse enolase 4 (eno4) gene causes sperm structural defects and male infertility. Biol Reprod 88:90
Horton, Julie K; Stefanick, Donna F; Gassman, Natalie R et al. (2013) Preventing oxidation of cellular XRCC1 affects PARP-mediated DNA damage responses. DNA Repair (Amst) 12:774-85
Mueller, G A; Maleki, S J; Johnson, K et al. (2013) Identification of Maillard reaction products on peanut allergens that influence binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products. Allergy 68:1546-54

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