The research objective of this award is to realize high-speed adaptive optics (AO) systems that use slow-rate image sensors, such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal?oxide?semiconductor (CMOS) arrays, for feedback. Such sensors are currently limited to only low bandwidth applications due to their relatively slow sampling rates. The proposed research will draw on the integrative nature of the image sensor to overcome this bandwidth limitation by combining estimation theory for multi-rate systems (from systems theory) and blur-to-motion algorithms (from image processing). Deliverables from this project include: (1) a system-theoretic analysis of the translation of the dynamics of an object into the spatial intensity distribution measured by an image sensor, (2) fast-rate, accurate, and robust output estimation and identification strategies using slow-rate image sensors; (3) tools for design and analysis of feedforward and feedback laws for systems with image sensors; and (4) demonstration of high-speed laser beam shaping and high-speed wavefront aberration correction for imaging systems.
The successful completion of this project will enable the use of cost-effective slow-rate image sensors in high-speed applications, which is currently infeasible because of low bandwidth restrictions. Key insights obtained will thus impact not only high-performance AO systems but also other high-speed systems that rely on image sensor feedback, such as visual-servo robots, aero-optics turbulence measurement systems, and parallelized optical tweezers. Together with industrial partners, the results of this research will be disseminated to practitioners from diverse technologies, including laser processing and wafer inspection with high speed scanning. Graduate and undergraduate students engaged in this project will be trained for a unique interdisciplinary understanding of optics, systems theory, and image processing. The project will also introduce middle and high school students to the exciting area of adaptive optics through development of passive and active optical components embedded into controllable Lego blocks.