The goal of this research project is to help clarify what effect the introduction of algebra in elementary school has on students' mathematical performance and learning in middle and high school. In their Early Algebra (EA) study, the investigators had demonstrated the feasibility of teaching elementary school students about algebraic relations and representations. They now propose to follow a group of 55 students as they enter middle and high school. This group of 55 students will be formed by the 26 students who participated in the EA lessons for three years and a cohort of students, from the same school (29 students), who were taught early algebra by their regular classroom teachers. The research team will collect information about the current schools' algebra curricula, videotape lessons, interview students, collect data on students' performance in class and in assessments mandated by the school, the district, and the state, and collect its own assessment data that allows performance to be compared to results published by the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The longitudinal analysis promises to inform policy-makers and mathematics educators about the long-term effects of introducing algebra early.