This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing the resources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. The subproject and investigator (PI) may have received primary funding from another NIH source, and thus could be represented in other CRISP entries. The institution listed is for the Center, which is not necessarily the institution for the investigator. Bone mineral mass and density in children and young adults are important determinants of bone health and osteoporosis risk in adults. However, little is known about determinants of bone development during childhood, and only a few studies have longitudinally assessed bone development and accretion in childhood. In this observational study these investigators are assessing bone development and its determinants among a cohort of healthy children followed from birth. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography will be used to assess bone measures at ages 9, 11 and 13. Results will be related to children's longitudinal dietary intake (e.g., calcium, vitamin D and protein), fluoride intake (dietary and non-dietary), physical activity and genetic factors. To better understand children's bone mass/density, they are also assessing bone mass/density in the parents, along with dietary, physical activity and genetic factors. This offers a unique opportunity to provide insight into childhood bone development and the roles of genetic, lifestyle and familial factors. This is especially important since bone accrual occurs during childhood and adolescence, with peak bone mass generally achieved by late adolescence or adulthood. Results could serve as a basis for future recommendations regarding lifestyle modification (such as diet and physical activity) to enhance bone mass and could have important implications for prevention of osteoporosis. The prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased in the U.S. and Canada while caries rates have declined. Excessive fluoride intake during critical periods of tooth development is the major determinant of dental fluorosis. However, the critical periods and levels necessary to cause fluorosis are poorly understood. Few studies have asssessed fluoride intake comprehensively or related results to dental fluorosis. In the dental portion of the study these investigators conduct standardized dental examinations for fluorosis and caries and relate findings to a longitudinal database of estimated fluoride intake from water, beverages, foods, dietary fluoride supplements, and dentifrice. Examinations of the permanent teeth will be conducted at age 9 (early-erupting teeth) and at age 13 (late-erupting teeth). Results could serve as a basis for more refined, future recommendations concerning the optimal use of fluorides for maximum public health caries prevention with minimal dental fluorosis risk.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
General Clinical Research Centers Program (M01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
National Center for Research Resources Initial Review Group (RIRG)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of Iowa
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Schools of Medicine
Iowa City
United States
Zip Code
Rao, Satish S C; Valestin, Jessica A; Xiang, Xuelian et al. (2018) Home-based versus office-based biofeedback therapy for constipation with dyssynergic defecation: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 3:768-777
Curtis, Alexandra M; VanBuren, John; Cavanaugh, Joseph E et al. (2018) Longitudinal associations between dental caries increment and risk factors in late childhood and adolescence. J Public Health Dent 78:321-328
Lorenz, Douglas J; Levy, Steven; Datta, Somnath (2018) Inferring marginal association with paired and unpaired clustered data. Stat Methods Med Res 27:1806-1817
Oweis, Reem Reda; Levy, Steven M; Eichenberger-Gilmore, Julie M et al. (2018) Fluoride intake and cortical and trabecular bone characteristics in adolescents at age 17: A prospective cohort study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 46:527-534
Curtis, A M; Cavanaugh, J E; Levy, S M et al. (2018) Examining caries aetiology in adolescence with structural equation modelling. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 46:258-264
Askie, Lisa M; Darlow, Brian A; Finer, Neil et al. (2018) Association Between Oxygen Saturation Targeting and Death or Disability in Extremely Preterm Infants in the Neonatal Oxygenation Prospective Meta-analysis Collaboration. JAMA 319:2190-2201
Choo-Wosoba, Hyoyoung; Gaskins, Jeremy; Levy, Steven et al. (2018) A Bayesian approach for analyzing zero-inflated clustered count data with dispersion. Stat Med 37:801-812
Levy, Steven M; Eichenberger-Gilmore, Julie M; Warren, John J et al. (2018) Associations of fluoride intake with children's cortical bone mineral and strength measures at age 11. J Public Health Dent 78:352-359
Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M et al. (2017) Association between body mass index percentile trajectories in infancy and adiposity in childhood and early adulthood. Obesity (Silver Spring) 25:166-171
Warren, John J; Van Buren, John M; Levy, Steven M et al. (2017) Dental caries clusters among adolescents. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 45:538-544

Showing the most recent 10 out of 381 publications