The Clinical and Specimen Core comprises two units: the Participant Accrual and Retention (PAR) Unit and the Specimen Collection, Processing, and Management (SCPM) Unit. These units work closely to identify transmission pairs and to collect clinical samples to address the specific aims of Projects 1 and 2. The San Diego First Choice Program?the foundation of the PAR Unit?has assembled the single largest cohort of participants with primary HIV infection and the single largest cohort of phylogenetically linked transmitting pairs. Large numbers of both types of study participants are needed to provide critical insights into the determinants of HIV transmission, together with a systematic, prospective analysis of factors that may impact transmission. The Clinical and Specimen Core will identify, recruit, and enroll study subjects and collect, process, store and manage clinical specimens needed to meet the program objectives. The PAR Unit will (1) identify and recruit individuals with acute (HIV EIA negative) and very early (detuned EIA O.D. <0.3) HIV infection (index+ participants);(2) identify and recruit exposed but HIVindividuals (index- participants);(3) collect and manage behavioral and clinical data from follow-up of index+ participants who remain antiretroviral-treatment naive (graduated index+ participants);and (4) identify and recruit sexual partners of these index participants. Based on our previous success in the First Choice Program, we will continue to identify and recruit index participants through community referral. Modeled after successful CDC programs, we will implement respondent driven sampling (RDS) using select acutely infected index participants as """"""""seeds."""""""" We will also implement nucleic acid testing (NAT) and detuned EIA testing in multiple San Diego County HIV testing sites. With these strategies, we expect to enroll at least 85 index+ participants annually. To identify and recruit the sexual partners of the index participants, we will use standard contact tracing and more novel e-mail notification and molecular epidemiologic approaches. Through these methods, we expect to recruit 23 epidemiologically and phylogenetically linked transmission pairs, 35 epidemiologically unlinked but phylogenetically linked transmission pairs, and 24 epidemiologically linked serodiscordant nontransmitting pairs annually. The SCPM Unit will (1) collect and process all clinical specimens;(2) inventory, store, track, and ship all specimens locally and to collaborating sites;(3) obtain consent and enroll recipients of confidential HIV counseling and testing in San Diego County to detect acute infection via NAT and early infection via detuned EIA;and (4) process >11,000 blood samples for NAT and >170 blood samples for LS EIA testing annually.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Research Program Projects (P01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of California San Diego
La Jolla
United States
Zip Code
Chaillon, Antoine; Gianella, Sara; Lada, Steven M et al. (2018) Size, Composition, and Evolution of HIV DNA Populations during Early Antiretroviral Therapy and Intensification with Maraviroc. J Virol 92:
Pines, Heather A; Karris, Maile Y; Little, Susan J (2017) Sexual Partner Concurrency Among Partners Reported by MSM with Recent HIV Infection. AIDS Behav 21:3026-3034
Gianella, Sara; Chaillon, Antoine; Mutlu, Ece A et al. (2017) Effect of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus replication on intestinal mucosal gene expression and microbiome composition of HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. AIDS 31:2059-2067
Hoenigl, Martin; Braun, Dominique L; Kouyos, Roger et al. (2017) Evaluation of the Predictive Potential of the Short Acute Retroviral Syndrome Severity Score for HIV-1 Disease Progression in Individuals With Acute HIV Infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 74:e114-e117
Graves, Susannah K; Little, Susan J; Hoenigl, Martin (2017) Risk profile and HIV testing outcomes of women undergoing community-based testing in San Diego 2008-2014. Sci Rep 7:42183
Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine et al. (2017) Partner services in adults with acute and early HIV infection. AIDS 31:287-293
Gianella, Sara; Taylor, Jeff; Brown, Timothy R et al. (2017) Can research at the end of life be a useful tool to advance HIV cure? AIDS 31:1-4
Vesa, Jouni; Chaillon, Antoine; Wagner, Gabriel A et al. (2017) Increased HIV-1 superinfection risk in carriers of specific human leukocyte antigen alleles. AIDS 31:1149-1158
Chaillon, Antoine; Nakazawa, Masato; Wertheim, Joel O et al. (2017) No Substantial Evidence for Sexual Transmission of Minority HIV Drug Resistance Mutations in Men Who Have Sex with Men. J Virol 91:
Grebe, Eduard; Welte, Alex; Hall, Jake et al. (2017) Infection Staging and Incidence Surveillance Applications of High Dynamic Range Diagnostic Immuno-Assay Platforms. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 76:547-555

Showing the most recent 10 out of 150 publications