Effective prevention strategies for HIV are critically needed, and an effective HIV vaccine is the best long-range hope to dramatically reduce the rate of new HIV infections. To this goal, our current understanding of the biology and epidemiology of HIV transmission remains limited. This Program Project will focus on the identification and systematic evaluation of individuals who have been recently infected with HIV and the sexual partners who transmitted HIV to them (Transmission Pairs) to elucidate and quantify epidemiologic, behavioral, biologic, virologic, and host factors that contribute to transmission. The San Diego Primary Infection research group has a long and successful history of recruiting acutely and very recently HIV-infected individuals and their transmitting partners. With new approaches to expand our identification of such study participants, as described in the Clinical and Specimen Core, we will address in Project 1 (Transmission Probability):
(Aim 1) the transmission probability per contact ((J), (Aim 2) the rate of partner change (c), (Aim 3) the duration of infectious stages (D), and thus determine the reproductive number (R0) of HIV in this population. These investigations will be complemented with Project 2 (Transmission Correlates) that will identify and quantify the contributions of important biologic (Aim 1), viral (Aim 2), and host (Aim 3) correlates of HIV sexual transmission. Most importantly, this research will allow for the accurate estimation of a potential prevention strategy or candidate vaccine's anticipated efficacy based on both an estimation of the target populations'ongoing risk behavior and a thorough understanding of viral and host factors that contribute to HIV transmission. The Administrative Core (Core A) will play a central role in coordinating the administrative, fiscal, data, and statistical support for this Project as well as providing scientific support and facilitating synergistic interaction among investigators and collaborators critical to the success of the interactive projects. The Clinical and Specimen Core (Core B) will identify, recruit and enroll study subjects and collect, process, store, and manage the clinical specimens needed to meet the objectives of the two proposed research projects.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Research Program Projects (P01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAI1-MH-A (S1))
Program Officer
Mckaig, Rosemary G
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University of California San Diego
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Schools of Medicine
La Jolla
United States
Zip Code
Chaillon, Antoine; Gianella, Sara; Lada, Steven M et al. (2018) Size, Composition, and Evolution of HIV DNA Populations during Early Antiretroviral Therapy and Intensification with Maraviroc. J Virol 92:
Vesa, Jouni; Chaillon, Antoine; Wagner, Gabriel A et al. (2017) Increased HIV-1 superinfection risk in carriers of specific human leukocyte antigen alleles. AIDS 31:1149-1158
Chaillon, Antoine; Nakazawa, Masato; Wertheim, Joel O et al. (2017) No Substantial Evidence for Sexual Transmission of Minority HIV Drug Resistance Mutations in Men Who Have Sex with Men. J Virol 91:
Grebe, Eduard; Welte, Alex; Hall, Jake et al. (2017) Infection Staging and Incidence Surveillance Applications of High Dynamic Range Diagnostic Immuno-Assay Platforms. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 76:547-555
Morris, Sheldon R; Zhao, Mitchell; Smith, Davey M et al. (2017) Longitudinal Viral Dynamics in Semen During Early HIV Infection. Clin Infect Dis 64:428-434
Osorio, Georgina; Hoenigl, Martin; Quartarolo, Jennifer et al. (2017) Evaluation of opt-out inpatient HIV screening at an urban teaching hospital. AIDS Care 29:1014-1018
Pines, Heather A; Karris, Maile Y; Little, Susan J (2017) Sexual Partner Concurrency Among Partners Reported by MSM with Recent HIV Infection. AIDS Behav 21:3026-3034
Gianella, Sara; Chaillon, Antoine; Mutlu, Ece A et al. (2017) Effect of cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus replication on intestinal mucosal gene expression and microbiome composition of HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. AIDS 31:2059-2067
Hoenigl, Martin; Braun, Dominique L; Kouyos, Roger et al. (2017) Evaluation of the Predictive Potential of the Short Acute Retroviral Syndrome Severity Score for HIV-1 Disease Progression in Individuals With Acute HIV Infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 74:e114-e117
Graves, Susannah K; Little, Susan J; Hoenigl, Martin (2017) Risk profile and HIV testing outcomes of women undergoing community-based testing in San Diego 2008-2014. Sci Rep 7:42183

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