(taken from the application): We will use spectroscopic techniques, mainly electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, to define the structural changes that occur within the motor proteins, both myosin and kinesin families, during their functional cycles. The data will determine what structural changes occur, what energetic differences separate these structu4res and how these structures fit into the kinetic cycle. The light chain domain of myosin is known to alter its orientation during the power stroke, and will be a focus of one line of investigation. We will attach paramagnetic probes to myosin regulatory light chains (LC2) and use them to measure the orientation of the light chain domain of the myosin head in rabbit skeletal muscle fibers to define the rotation of this region during force generation. Paramagnetic labels will also be attached to the light chains of myosin in smooth muscle. We will ex0plore the roles of ADP and LC2 phosphorylation in the physiological responses of smooth muscle, and in particular in the maintenance of the latch state. We will monitor changes in the conformation of the catalytic domain of myosin in collaboration with Jim Spudich and his laboratory. Paramagnetic probes will be attached to cysteines introduced into specific locations in """"""""cys-lite"""""""" myosin heads (heads from which all native reactive cysteines have been removed). Two regions will be initially investigated, the 50 kD cleft that traverses the catalytic domain from the actin site to the nucleotide pocket, and the converter region which lies at the interface between the catalytic domain and the LC domain. Both regions are thought to undergo conformational changes in response to binding of nucleotides and/or actin. The conformation of these regions will be monitored during interaction with actin and nucleotides. The data will determine what conformations are associated with which nucleotide states, whether multiple conformations are found for specific nucleotides, what energetic differences separate the different conformations, and what conformations are produced by binding to actin. We will use spin-labels to monitor the conformation of the neck region of kinesin, during interaction with nucleotides and microtubules. This project will be carried out in collaboration with Ron ale and his laboratory, who have developed a """"""""cys-lite"""""""" kinesin dimer, with new cysteines introduced into the neck region. This region is th0ught to unf9old to allow both heads of kinesin to interact simultaneously with a microtubule. This hypothesis will be tested by defining the conformation of this region using the spectra of single probes.

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Lal, Sean; Li, Amy; Allen, David et al. (2015) Best Practice BioBanking of Human Heart Tissue. Biophys Rev 7:399-406
Eldred, Catherine C; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Edward et al. (2013) Conformational changes at the nucleotide site in the presence of bound ADP do not set the velocity of fast Drosophila myosins. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 34:35-42
Harrington, Timothy D; Naber, Nariman; Larson, Adam G et al. (2011) Analysis of the interaction of the Eg5 Loop5 with the nucleotide site. J Theor Biol 289:107-15
Purcell, Thomas J; Naber, Nariman; Franks-Skiba, Kathy et al. (2011) Nucleotide pocket thermodynamics measured by EPR reveal how energy partitioning relates myosin speed to efficiency. J Mol Biol 407:79-91
Waitzman, Joshua S; Larson, Adam G; Cochran, Jared C et al. (2011) The loop 5 element structurally and kinetically coordinates dimers of the human kinesin-5, Eg5. Biophys J 101:2760-9
Purcell, Thomas J; Naber, Nariman; Sutton, Shirley et al. (2011) EPR spectra and molecular dynamics agree that the nucleotide pocket of myosin V is closed and that it opens on binding actin. J Mol Biol 411:16-26
Naber, Nariman; Larson, Adam; Rice, Sarah et al. (2011) Multiple conformations of the nucleotide site of Kinesin family motors in the triphosphate state. J Mol Biol 408:628-42
Naber, Nariman; Málnási-Csizmadia, András; Purcell, Thomas J et al. (2010) Combining EPR with fluorescence spectroscopy to monitor conformational changes at the myosin nucleotide pocket. J Mol Biol 396:937-48
Larson, Adam G; Naber, Nariman; Cooke, Roger et al. (2010) The conserved L5 loop establishes the pre-powerstroke conformation of the Kinesin-5 motor, eg5. Biophys J 98:2619-27
Stewart, Melanie A; Franks-Skiba, Kathleen; Chen, Susan et al. (2010) Myosin ATP turnover rate is a mechanism involved in thermogenesis in resting skeletal muscle fibers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:430-5

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