Millimeter waves (MW) have been shown to produce biological effects and are being used for medical treatment. Due to shallow penetration, MW interact primarily with the skin structures. It was accepted that exposures at intensities of 10 mW/cm2 and higher were able to produce thermal effects on biological substances due to temperature elevation and a high heating rate. The latter factor could play an important role in stimulating nerve endings in the skin. Recent theoretical analyses showed that due to thermal noise, the direct interaction of MW on molecular and cellular levels at exposure intensities less than 10 mW/cm2 could not affect biological systems. Hence, to identify the mechanisms of biological effects of MW, it is very important to characterize quantitatively the power density and absorption at different points within the skin, and the temperature elevations and heating rates in the locations of thermosensitive structures of the skin. As the wavelength of MW is comparable with the thicknesses of skin layers, the frequency-dependent absorption of MW differs for layers. Non-homogeneous structures of the skin such as blood vessels and sweat ducts can disturb the power density in nearby areas. Thus, the present studies are designed to determine the frequency dependence of the MW energy deposition within different layers and non-homogenous appendages of the skin. Using multilayer tissue models, we will investigate theoretically and experimentally the MW heating of the skin under different exposure conditions and effect of blood flow and water evaporation on the temperature elevation. We will also examine the capability of MW to elicit local vasodilatation in the skin. Some dosimetry methods such as specific absorption rate measurements, which were widely used for quantifying the absorption energy through entire radiofrequency spectrum, are not appropriate for shallow penetrating MW, and they should be modified when applied to MW frequencies. The new methods developed in our study for determination of MW energy deposition and heating of the skin will be used for establishing adequate dosimetry. The results of the proposed project will be utilized in evaluation of the biophysical mechanisms of the MW interaction with skin structures, and for improving dosimetry in the animal studies of the other projects of the Center. ? ?

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)
Type
Research Program Projects (P01)
Project #
5P01AT002025-02
Application #
7126412
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZAT1-G (15))
Program Officer
Khalsa, Partap Singh
Project Start
2005-09-30
Project End
2009-08-31
Budget Start
2006-09-01
Budget End
2007-08-31
Support Year
2
Fiscal Year
2006
Total Cost
$997,383
Indirect Cost
Name
Temple University
Department
Radiation-Diagnostic/Oncology
Type
Schools of Medicine
DUNS #
057123192
City
Philadelphia
State
PA
Country
United States
Zip Code
19122
Ziskin, Marvin C (2013) Millimeter waves: acoustic and electromagnetic. Bioelectromagnetics 34:3-14
Logani, Mahendra K; Alekseev, Stanislav; Bhopale, Mahendra K et al. (2012) Effect of millimeter waves and cyclophosphamide on cytokine regulation. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 34:107-12
Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M S; Fesenko, E E (2011) [Problems of using a thermocouple for measurements of skin temperature rise during the exposure to millimeter waves]. Biofizika 56:561-5
Alekseev, Stanislav I; Ziskin, Marvin C (2011) Enhanced absorption of millimeter wave energy in murine subcutaneous blood vessels. Bioelectromagnetics 32:423-33
Egot-Lemaire, St├ęphane J-P; Ziskin, Marvin C (2011) Dielectric properties of human skin at an acupuncture point in the 50-75?GHz frequency range: a pilot study. Bioelectromagnetics 32:360-6
Alekseev, Stanislav I; Fesenko, Evgeny E; Ziskin, Marvin C (2010) Enhanced absorption of microwaves within cylindrical holes in Teflon film. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 57:2517-24
Alekseev, Stanislav I; Gordiienko, Oleg V; Radzievsky, Alexander A et al. (2010) Millimeter wave effects on electrical responses of the sural nerve in vivo. Bioelectromagnetics 31:180-90
Alekseev, Stanislav I; Ziskin, Marvin C (2009) Millimeter-wave absorption by cutaneous blood vessels: a computational study. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 56:2380-8
Nicolaz, Christophe Nicolas; Zhadobov, Maxim; Desmots, Fabienne et al. (2009) Study of narrow band millimeter-wave potential interactions with endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor genes. Bioelectromagnetics 30:365-73
Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M C (2009) Influence of blood flow and millimeter wave exposure on skin temperature in different thermal models. Bioelectromagnetics 30:52-8

Showing the most recent 10 out of 18 publications