The long-term goals of this project are to define the role of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) as a novel and critical downstream target for the tumor suppressive action of p53, and to establish SK1 as a potential target for cancer therapy, especially in tumors with loss of or mutant p53. p53 and components its pathway have emerged as key tumor suppressors, which are disregulated in the majority of cancers. Targeting this pathway has been difficult due to the nature and function of the involved proteins. Over the last few years, we have begun to uncover a profound and novel connection between p53 and SK1. SK1 is a highly regulated enzyme that plays a critical role in regulating the levels of the bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and in the clearance of ceramide. S1P has emerged as a tumor-promoting sphingolipid with actions on cell growth, angiogenesis and anti-inflammation whereas ceramide has emerged as a tumor suppressor lipid involved in regulation of cell senescence, apoptosis and growth arrest. Thus, SK1, by regulating the interconversion of these two critical bioactive lipids, assumes a central role in tumor biology. In the previous funding period we showed that induction of p53 results in loss of SK1. Moreover in our recently published studies, we demonstrated that this p53-induced loss of SK1 is critical for allowing p53-induced suppression of thymic lymphoma, osteosarcoma, and other cancers as evidenced in studies using the combined p53/SK1 knock-out mice. These ongoing studies provide previously unappreciated, novel and solid connections between p53, SK1, and bioactive sphingolipids, the latter mediating key effects of p53 on tumor suppression. In turn, these studies raise a number of fundamental questions as to the specific effects of p53 on SK1 and on the networks of bioactive sphingolipids: what bioactive lipid mediates what specific p53 responses, and what are the mechanisms involved? These findings have led us to the hypothesis that loss of SK1 is a key event in mediating the tumor suppressor effects of p53. Loss of p53 or its mutation results in persistence of SK1 which then allows tumor development and/or progression. This hypothesis will be investigated by pursuing the following specific aims: 1) To define the mechanisms by which p53 induces loss of SK1. 2) To define the role of bioactive sphingolipids in mediating the effects of p53 on tumor suppression. 3) To establish SK1 as a therapeutic target in p53-mutant cancers. Identifying the mechanisms by which p53 regulates SK1 will not only shed light on this exciting novel connection between the two components, but will also result in the identification of novel therapeutic targets.
This work is focused on determining the role of a lipid metabolizing enzyme sphingosine kinase 1 and its product sphingosine 1-phosphate in cancer growth. We will focus on a p53 mutant mouse model of cancer and try to inhibit cancer growth by inhibiting sphingosine kinase activity.
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