Use of marijuana (cannabis) among pregnant women in the US is increasing with prevalence as high as 14% among 12?18 year old pregnant women. The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommends that pregnant women avoid marijuana due to evidence that it affects the fetus and may interfere with brain development. Studies in animals appear to support this recommendation. Although other constituents of marijuana cannot be discounted, the general scientific consensus is that ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most abundant and psychoactive component in marijuana, is the likely perpetrator of the developmental neurotoxicity of marijuana. However, these animal and in vitro studies were conducted at high THC doses or concentrations and therefore their applicability to humans, where THC plasma concentrations are sub-micromolar, is unknown. On the other hand, human data on fetal and infant developmental outcomes due to marijuana use during pregnancy are limited, confounded by other factors and remain controversial. Conducting a controlled clinical trial to determine if marijuana results in negative fetal/neonatal outcomes is unethical. Therefore, alternative approaches to determine fetal outcomes of marijuana use during pregnancy need to be explored. However, this can only be achieved when the fetal exposure to THC and its active metabolite,11-OH-THC, has been addressed and accurately predicted. To achieve this goal, we propose a systems pharmacology approach to begin to address this significant public health problem and test the central hypothesis: Maternal-fetal exposure for THC/11-OH-THC during pregnancy can be predicted through innovative in vitro and in vivo studies integrated through maternal-fetal PBPK modeling and simulation (m-f-PBPK M & S). Fetal exposure to THC/11-OH-THC will be dependent on their maternal disposition, placental transport/metabolism and fetal clearance. Fetal exposure to THC/11-OH-THC will drive their fetal toxicity. Therefore, the projects of this P01 are designed to: 1) understand fetal exposure to THC/11-OH-THC by characterizing metabolism and transport of THC/11-OH-THC in maternal organs, placenta and fetus (Project 1); 2) predict the changes in maternal exposure to THC and its comprehensive metabolome including 11-OH-THC, 11-nor-COOH-THC and the glucuronides, throughout pregnancy, and the mechanistic basis for these changes (Project 2); and 3) predict and verify gestational age- dependent placental-fetal exposure to THC/11-OH-THC through PBPK M & S by integrating the data from the above two projects (Project 3). In addition, in an exploratory manner, we will determine whether these cannabinoids produce any molecular signatures indicative of short or long-term developmental neurotoxicity in humans (Project 3). Our approach uses novel and innovative tools (e.g. m-f-PBPK model, development of an inhalational m-f-PBPK model, perfused human placenta, quantitative targeted proteomics and metabolomics) to address a compelling public health question.
OVERALL PROGRAM NARRATIVE Use of marijuana amongst pregnant women in the US is increasing, and a major concern is the transfer of cannabinoids across the placental barrier, leading to placental (and therefore fetal) toxicity. Studies proposed in this P01 will elucidate how and to what extent the maternal-placental-fetal exposure to cannabinoids is altered during pregnancy and how to predict these changes. Completion of these studies will significantly advance our ability to predict the risks of using marijuana during pregnancy (a significant public health problem that cannot be addressed using the traditional approach of conducting a clinical trial ) and have the potential to reveal strategies to minimize such risks.
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