The surgical, metabolic and anatomical studies we performed during the last funding period have characterized the histopathological and mineral composition in seven groups of SF: CaOx ICSF, patients with Stones due to intestinal bypass surgery for obesity, CaP ICSF, dRTA with phosphate stones, cystine, PHT with phosphate stones, and ileostomy to test the hypothesis that interstitial plaque, arise in unique anatomical regions of the kidney, and that their formation is conditioned by specific SF pathophysiologies. We were amazed at the finding, in that, each group of SF had a unique histopathologic pattern of crystal deposition with all interstitial sites of crystalline material composed of hydroxyapatite, and intratubular sites composed of HA with a mixture of cystine, CaOx or a mixture of Na acid urate and ammonium acid urate.
Aim 1 will determine mineral and ultrastructural characteristics of the plug-overgrowth-stone complex in stone formers with tuubular plugging.
Aim 2 outlines a new set of studies that will determine if all kidney stones attached to sites of Randall's plaque have apatite overgrowths. These studies will advance the studies on the plaque-tissue interface already accomplished in this funding cycle.
Aim 3 outlines a new series of studies to determine if normal tubules adjacent to plugged, scared tubules acquire (the field effect) cellular changes including hyaluronan expression mediated by cytokines that could lead to an acidification defect.
Aim 4 will use cryo-electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis to quantify the calcium levels in papillary tissue from CaOx ICSF patients suggesting a vas wash down mechanism for plaque formation.
Aim 5 a and b will determine if renal tissue protein expression of CaSR, VDR and various targets of VDR activation are increased in CaOx ICSF. Lastly, Aim 6 will determine if membrane location and/or abundance is abnormal for transporters involved in calcium handling, in those CaOx ICSF with documented markedly abnormal reduction of post-prandial calcium reabsorption compared to CaP ICSF and non-stone forming controls. These new Aims will greatly advance our understanding of the precise mechanisms of stone formation and growth, which will hopefully translate into more effective clinical treatments for stone disease.

Public Health Relevance

Our enduring objective has been to learn how kidney stones form, so that treatments can be improved by a greater understanding. Along the way we have realized that stone formers are not homogeneous, even when they seem to be so. Calcium oxalate stone formers grow their stones over papillary deposits of interstitial apatite called Randall's plaque. We will determine how hypercalciuria, or other factors create plaque so that new treatments can be developed to prevent plague formation and thus, stone formation.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Research Program Projects (P01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZDK1-GRB-R)
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University of Chicago
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Williams Jr, James C; Borofsky, Michael S; Bledsoe, Sharon B et al. (2018) Papillary Ductal Plugging is a Mechanism for Early Stone Retention in Brushite Stone Disease. J Urol 199:186-192
Worcester, Elaine M; Bergsland, Kristin J; Gillen, Daniel L et al. (2018) Mechanism for higher urine pH in normal women compared with men. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 314:F623-F629
Bergsland, Kristin J; Coe, Fredric L; Parks, Joan H et al. (2018) Evidence for a role of PDZ domain-containing proteins to mediate hypophosphatemia in calcium stone formers. Nephrol Dial Transplant 33:759-770
Kleinguetl, Colin; Williams Jr, James C; Ibrahim, Samar A et al. (2017) Calcium Tartrate Tetrahydrate, Case Report of a Novel Human Kidney Stone. J Endourol Case Rep 3:192-195
Mulay, Shrikant R; Eberhard, Jonathan N; Desai, Jyaysi et al. (2017) Hyperoxaluria Requires TNF Receptors to Initiate Crystal Adhesion and Kidney Stone Disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 28:761-768
Winfree, Seth; Khan, Shehnaz; Micanovic, Radmila et al. (2017) Quantitative Three-Dimensional Tissue Cytometry to Study Kidney Tissue and Resident Immune Cells. J Am Soc Nephrol 28:2108-2118
Borofsky, Michael S; Dauw, Casey A; York, Nadya et al. (2017) Accuracy of daily fluid intake measurements using a ""smart"" water bottle. Urolithiasis :
Winfree, Seth; Ferkowicz, Michael J; Dagher, Pierre C et al. (2017) Large-scale 3-dimensional quantitative imaging of tissues: state-of-the-art and translational implications. Transl Res 189:1-12
Cohen, Andrew J; Borofsky, Michael S; Anderson, Blake B et al. (2017) Endoscopic Evidence That Randall's Plaque is Associated with Surface Erosion of the Renal Papilla. J Endourol 31:85-90
Gilad, Ron; Williams Jr, James C; Usman, Kalba D et al. (2017) Interpreting the results of chemical stone analysis in the era of modern stone analysis techniques. J Nephrol 30:135-140

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