iPSCs have the potential to treat a wide range of intractable diseases. In recent years, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have gained popularity as a potentially ideal cell candidate for regenerative medicine. hESCs are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyte and can be kept in an undifferentiated, self-renewing state indefinitely. In contrast to adult somafic cells, hESCs have the advantage of being pluripotent, which endows them with the ability to differentiate into virtually every cell type in the human body. However, the clinical use of human embryos is controversial in the US, and the problem of tissue rejection following transplantation in patients remains difficult. One way to circumvent these issues is to generate autologous iPSCs. Successful reprogramming of adult fibroblast cells into iPSCs based on defined factors was reported independently in 2008 by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University, Japan {Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) and James Thomson at the University of Wisconsin (Ocf4, Sox2, Nanog, Lin28) (2). The main advantage of iPSCs is that they eliminate the need for human embryos or oocytes to generate patient-specific stem, cells and therefore can potentially bypass the ethical and political debates that have traditionally limited support for this field. A second important advantage is that the use of IPSCs obviates the need for immunosuppressive therapy because the cells are patient-specific. With the rapid progress in the iPSC field, patient-specific and disease-specific iPSCs from individuals with a variety of genetic diseases, such as Duchenne (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington disease (HD) have been generated(3,4). Furthermore, different derivatives and cell types have also been generated from IPSCs such as cardiomyocytes and motor neurons (4,5), making iPSCs an attractive candidate for regenerative medicine.

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Kim, Kun-Yong; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Su, Juan et al. (2018) Uhrf1 regulates active transcriptional marks at bivalent domains in pluripotent stem cells through Setd1a. Nat Commun 9:2583
Patterson, Benjamin; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Park, In-Hyun (2017) New Advances in Human X chromosome status from a Developmental and Stem Cell Biology. Tissue Eng Regen Med 14:643-652
Zhu, Wanjun; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Marjani, Sadie L et al. (2017) Next-generation molecular diagnosis: single-cell sequencing from bench to bedside. Cell Mol Life Sci 74:869-880
Zhao, Ming-Tao; Shao, Ning-Yi; Hu, Shijun et al. (2017) Cell Type-Specific Chromatin Signatures Underline Regulatory DNA Elements in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Somatic Cells. Circ Res 121:1237-1250
Zhao, Ming-Tao; Chen, Haodong; Liu, Qing et al. (2017) Molecular and functional resemblance of differentiated cells derived from isogenic human iPSCs and SCNT-derived ESCs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114:E11111-E11120
Xiang, Yangfei; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Patterson, Benjamin et al. (2017) Fusion of Regionally Specified hPSC-Derived Organoids Models Human Brain Development and Interneuron Migration. Cell Stem Cell 21:383-398.e7
Churko, Jared M; Lee, Jaecheol; Ameen, Mohamed et al. (2017) Transcriptomic and epigenomic differences in human induced pluripotent stem cells generated from six reprogramming methods. Nat Biomed Eng 1:826-837
Kodo, Kazuki; Ong, Sang-Ging; Jahanbani, Fereshteh et al. (2016) iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes reveal abnormal TGF-? signalling in left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy. Nat Cell Biol 18:1031-42
Burridge, Paul W; Diecke, Sebastian; Matsa, Elena et al. (2016) Modeling Cardiovascular Diseases with Patient-Specific Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes. Methods Mol Biol 1353:119-30
Liu, Renjing; Kim, Kun-Yong; Jung, Yong-Wook et al. (2016) Dnmt1 regulates the myogenic lineage specification of muscle stem cells. Sci Rep 6:35355

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