This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing the resources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. The subproject and investigator (PI) may have received primary funding from another NIH source, and thus could be represented in other CRISP entries. The institution listed is for the Center, which is not necessarily the institution for the investigator. Cholesterol is eliminated from neurons by oxidization, which generates oxysterols. Cholesterol oxidation is mediated by the enzymes cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1) and cholesterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1). Immunocytochemical studies show that CYP46A1 and CYP27A1 are expressed in neurons and some astrocytes in the normal brain, and CYP27A1 is present in oligodendrocytes. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), CYP46A1 shows prominent expression in astrocytes and around amyloid plaques, whereas CYP27A1 expression decreases in neurons and is not apparent around amyloid plaques but increases in oligodendrocytes. Although previous studies have examined the effects of synthetic oxysterols on the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the actions of the naturally occurring oxysterols have yet to be examined. To understand the role of cholesterol oxidation in AD, we compared the effects of 24(S)- and 27-hydroxycholesterol on the processing of APP and analyzed the cell-specific expression patterns of the two cholesterol hydroxylases in the human brain. Both oxysterols inhibited production of A in neurons, but 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol was 1000-fold more potent than 27-hydroxycholesterol. The IC50 of 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol for inhibiting A secretion was 1 nM. Both oxysterols induced ABCA1 expression with IC50 values similar to that for inhibition of A secretion, suggesting the involvement of liver X receptor. Oxysterols also inhibited protein kinase C activity and APP secretion following stimulation of protein kinase C. The selective expression of CYP46A1 around neuritic plaques and the potent inhibition of APP processing in neurons by 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol suggests that CYP46A1 affects the pathophysiology of AD and provides insight into how polymorphisms in the CYP46A1 gene might influence the pathophysiology of this prevalent disease.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Biotechnology Resource Grants (P41)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-BPC-H (40))
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Washington University
Internal Medicine/Medicine
Schools of Medicine
Saint Louis
United States
Zip Code
Yue, Xuyi; Dhavale, Dhruva D; Li, Junfeng et al. (2018) Design, synthesis, and in vitro evaluation of quinolinyl analogues for ?-synuclein aggregation. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 28:1011-1019
Ohlemacher, Shannon I; Giblin, Daryl E; d'Avignon, D André et al. (2017) Enterobacteria secrete an inhibitor of Pseudomonas virulence during clinical bacteriuria. J Clin Invest 127:4018-4030
Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina et al. (2017) Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion Is Negatively Associated With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 37:2364-2369
Ovod, Vitaliy; Ramsey, Kara N; Mawuenyega, Kwasi G et al. (2017) Amyloid ? concentrations and stable isotope labeling kinetics of human plasma specific to central nervous system amyloidosis. Alzheimers Dement 13:841-849
Cade, W Todd; Levy, Philip T; Tinius, Rachel A et al. (2017) Markers of maternal and infant metabolism are associated with ventricular dysfunction in infants of obese women with type 2 diabetes. Pediatr Res 82:768-775
Lucey, Brendan P; Mawuenyega, Kwasi G; Patterson, Bruce W et al. (2017) Associations Between ?-Amyloid Kinetics and the ?-Amyloid Diurnal Pattern in the Central Nervous System. JAMA Neurol 74:207-215
Wei, Xiaochao; Song, Haowei; Yin, Li et al. (2016) Fatty acid synthesis configures the plasma membrane for inflammation in diabetes. Nature 539:294-298
Shields-Cutler, Robin R; Crowley, Jan R; Miller, Connelly D et al. (2016) Human Metabolome-derived Cofactors Are Required for the Antibacterial Activity of Siderocalin in Urine. J Biol Chem 291:25901-25910
Mertins, Philipp; Mani, D R; Ruggles, Kelly V et al. (2016) Proteogenomics connects somatic mutations to signalling in breast cancer. Nature 534:55-62
Murata, Takahiro; Dietrich, Hans H; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi et al. (2016) Mechanisms of magnesium-induced vasodilation in cerebral penetrating arterioles. Neurosci Res 107:57-62

Showing the most recent 10 out of 696 publications