This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing theresources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. The subproject andinvestigator (PI) may have received primary funding from another NIH source,and thus could be represented in other CRISP entries. The institution listed isfor the Center, which is not necessarily the institution for the investigator.In addition to their functions as cellular redox cofactors, an ever-widening array of non-redox functions has been found for the pyridine nucleotide coenzymes in cellular regulation. First to be identified were bacterial toxins, including those responsible for the symptomology of cholera, diphtheria and pertussis. Evolutionarily related proteins include the multifunctional nuclear protein poly-ADPRibose synthase (PARP) involved in repair of DNA and apoptosis and ADPRibosyltransferases, both cytoplasmic and extracellular, that have been implicated in immunocompetency and immunoregulation.An evolutionarily distinct family of enzymes identified as CD38 correlates with cell transformation and cell differentiation and was found to be a dual functional enzyme. CD38 catalyzes the hydrolysis of NAD and cyclic-ADPribose (cADPR) as well as possesses ADP-Ribosyl cyclase activity. The product, cADPR, functions as a second messenger in calcium regulation while CD38 is critical for the innate immune response.A third distinct family of NAD -dependent enzymes is the histone deacetylase designated as SIR2. It catalyzes the cleavage of the nicotinamide-ribosyl bond with concomitant transfer of the acetyl group to generate a mixture of O2' and O3'-Acetyl-ADPRibose. Mutations in SIR2 in yeast and Drosophila have led to increases in life span of up to two fold.A fourth family of NAD -dependent enzymes is the tRNA phosphotransferase, TPT1, that is the final step in maturation of tRNA. TPT1 catalyses the cleavage of the nicotinamide-ribosyl bond and then transfers the terminal 2'-phosphate of tRNA to generate ADPRibose-1'-2'-cyclicphosphate. Our lab is collaborating in mechanistic studies of the enzymatic functions as well as exploring the design of inhibitors and alternative substrates that can be used to probe their biological functions as well as their potential for therapeutic intervention. There are structural data for all four families hence the facilities of the Computer Graphics Laboratory play a central role in these investigations.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Biotechnology Resource Grants (P41)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-BST-D (40))
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of California San Francisco
Schools of Pharmacy
San Francisco
United States
Zip Code
Kozak, John J; Gray, Harry B; Garza-López, Roberto A (2018) Relaxation of structural constraints during Amicyanin unfolding. J Inorg Biochem 179:135-145
Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Sulbarán, Guidenn et al. (2018) Lessons from a tarantula: new insights into myosin interacting-heads motif evolution and its implications on disease. Biophys Rev 10:1465-1477
Viswanath, Shruthi; Chemmama, Ilan E; Cimermancic, Peter et al. (2017) Assessing Exhaustiveness of Stochastic Sampling for Integrative Modeling of Macromolecular Structures. Biophys J 113:2344-2353
Chu, Shidong; Zhou, Guangyan; Gochin, Miriam (2017) Evaluation of ligand-based NMR screening methods to characterize small molecule binding to HIV-1 glycoprotein-41. Org Biomol Chem 15:5210-5219
Portioli, Corinne; Bovi, Michele; Benati, Donatella et al. (2017) Novel functionalization strategies of polymeric nanoparticles as carriers for brain medications. J Biomed Mater Res A 105:847-858
Alamo, Lorenzo; Koubassova, Natalia; Pinto, Antonio et al. (2017) Lessons from a tarantula: new insights into muscle thick filament and myosin interacting-heads motif structure and function. Biophys Rev 9:461-480
Nguyen, Hai Dang; Yadav, Tribhuwan; Giri, Sumanprava et al. (2017) Functions of Replication Protein A as a Sensor of R Loops and a Regulator of RNaseH1. Mol Cell 65:832-847.e4
Sofiyev, Vladimir; Kaur, Hardeep; Snyder, Beth A et al. (2017) Enhanced potency of bivalent small molecule gp41 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem 25:408-420
Sato, Daisuke; Shannon, Thomas R; Bers, Donald M (2016) Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Structure and Functional Properties that Promote Long-Lasting Calcium Sparks. Biophys J 110:382-390
Towse, Clare-Louise; Rysavy, Steven J; Vulovic, Ivan M et al. (2016) New Dynamic Rotamer Libraries: Data-Driven Analysis of Side-Chain Conformational Propensities. Structure 24:187-199

Showing the most recent 10 out of 508 publications