This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing the resources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. Primary support for the subproject and the subproject's principal investigator may have been provided by other sources, including other NIH sources. The Total Cost listed for the subproject likely represents the estimated amount of Center infrastructure utilized by the subproject, not direct funding provided by the NCRR grant to the subproject or subproject staff. This subproject is one of many research subprojects utilizing the resources provided by a Center grant funded by NIH/NCRR. The subproject and investigator (PI) may have received primary funding from another NIH source, and thus could be represented in other CRISP entries. The institution listed is for the Center, which is not necessarily the institution for the investigator. The Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Study (CHS-CS), """"""""Predictors of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI)"""""""" (AG 20098) has carefully followed 532 non-demented participants over the past 3 years. These were 83% of the 924 eligible participants from the original CHS Pittsburgh cognition study initially established in 1992-94. The participants have been followed with annual neuropsychological evaluations, information from informants and detailed clinical information. By 2006, 32% of the normals (approximately 6% per year) and 63% of the MCIs (approximately 16% per year) will be demented;and 359 are alive in 2006, with a mean age of 86. This study has shown that most MCI convert to dementia, that many normals convert to dementia very rapidly, that the MRI findings are crucial for understanding risk, including vascular disease in the brain, global brain atrophy and focal brain abnormalities. The proposed 4-year renewal includes 3 years of follow up and repeat MRIs for the surviving cohort in order to evaluate the characteristics of individuals who survive free of dementia to determine the relationship of risk factors and MRI changes over an approximate 18-20 year follow up for the 924 participants, to analyze the relationship of lifestyles, genetic and MRI attributes to the risk of dementia, MCI and remaining normal. Most of the resources in this proposed follow up are dedicated to the detailed evaluation of the MRIs, to careful evaluation of the remaining survivors and for detailed final analysis. This is the only large population-based study for the foreseeable future with long term follow up, repeat MRIs and careful neuropsychological evaluation. From the data gathered in the first 3 years of this project, we have developed a central hypothesis to guide our research questions. Specifically, that the pathological state of AD exists years prior to the development of the clinical signs/symptoms of the dementia syndrome. We view MCI as the transitional state between normal cognition and frank dementia, and that in the absence of other comorbid conditions, MCI is AD. In this context, our study of the variables that indicate the presence of neuropathological change (e.g., structural and perfusion MRI, plasma beta-amyloid) and the factors that modify the risk to express the clinical syndrome takes on an added importance.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR)
Biotechnology Resource Grants (P41)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-SBIB-L (40))
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University of California Los Angeles
Schools of Medicine
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Green, Shulamite A; Hernandez, Leanna M; Bowman, Hilary C et al. (2018) Sensory over-responsivity and social cognition in ASD: Effects of aversive sensory stimuli and attentional modulation on neural responses to social cues. Dev Cogn Neurosci 29:127-139
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