This proposal is composed of two sequential studies; the study will examine male and female smokers with and without current depressive symptoms on the clinical course (intensity, content and duration) of cigarette abstinence effects, and responses to cigarette-related cues during acute and prolonged nicotine abstinence; the second study will conduct a similar examination in male and female smoker who are either heavy or light drinkers. Alcohol dependence, major depression/current depressive symptoms and female gender have also been associated with high rates of cigarette smoking and poor smoking-treatment outcomes. In adult smokers without psychiatric comorbidity, development of nicotine withdrawal is an important factor in the maintenance of cigarette smoking (USDHHS, 1988), and the intensity of withdrawal is directly correlated with the degree of nicotine use. Retrospective studies report that smokers with a history of major depression disorder and/or alcohol dependence experience more current depressive symptoms (without current MDD) and heavy drinkers (without alcohol dependence) has not been examined. This is particularly important considering a significant percentage of smokers have depressive symptoms and are also heavy drinkers but may not meet criteria for MDD or alcohol dependence. Detailed understanding of the nicotine abstinence syndrome in these high-risk smoker could lead to strategies (behavioral and pharmacological) for effective management of withdrawal symptoms which may prevent relapse to smoking. The following specific aims will be tested 1) To compare male and female smokers, with and without current depressive symptoms, in a prospective study of the intensity, content & duration of nicotine abstinence effects during an eight-day abstinence period, and responses to cure exposure ( in vivo cigarette cues, alcohol and negative affect- inducing imagery cues) during acute versus prolonged abstinence and, 2) To compare male and female smokers, who are either heavy alcohol drinkers or light alcohol drinkers, in a prospective study of the intensity, content & duration of nicotine abstinence effects during an eight-day abstinence period, and responses to cure exposure (in vivo cigarette cues, alcohol and negative affect-inducing imagery cues) during acute versus prolonged abstinence.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Specialized Center (P50)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZCA1)
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Yale University
New Haven
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