Building on extensive past research by Project III on the comorbidity of reading disability (RD) and ADHD, the proposed research will extend those methods and concepts to understanding the comorbidities among less-studied complex LDs, and their comorbidities with ADHD and with RD. Project III will use multiple methods of analysis to examine how component cognitive skills, including executive functions (EFs), contribute to these comorbidities. Previous research has demonstrated that ADHD is comorbid with each of these less-studied LDs, including poor reading comprehension, poor written language, and poor math problem solving ability, and considerable prior research indicates a role for EFs in these disorders. Proficiency in these academic skills requires not only mastery of prerequisite basic skills, but also higher level-thinking skills, such as oral language comprehension and EFs. Project III will explicitly test versions of this interactive model of these three complex LDs in collaboration with Projects II and V. So the goal of Project III is to gain a comprehensive understanding ofthe comorbidities among these three complex LDs and their comorbidities with both ADHD and RD. In collaboration with Project I, Project III will also continue ongoing work on the comorbidity between dyslexia (RD) and ADHD. Project III will test these comorbidities at both the cognitive and etiological levels of analysis. It will also test whether GxE interactions are part ofthe etiology of these disorders and their comorbidities. Even though there is considerable evidence for shared cognitive and genetic risk factors across these disorders, their relations have not been previously examined in the same sample.

Public Health Relevance

Project III will examine the comorbidity among complex LDs and their comorbidities with RD and ADHD in the same sample. The resulting increased understanding of complex LDs will sharpen the focus of early identification and preventive intervention. Etiological or cognitive risk factors that are shared by multiple LDs and ADHD should provide a particularly important target for early intervention.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Specialized Center (P50)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZHD1)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of Colorado at Boulder
United States
Zip Code
Becker, Stephen P; Willcutt, Erik G (2018) Advancing the study of sluggish cognitive tempo via DSM, RDoC, and hierarchical models of psychopathology. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry :
Becker, Stephen P; Burns, G Leonard; Leopold, Daniel R et al. (2018) Differential impact of trait sluggish cognitive tempo and ADHD inattention in early childhood on adolescent functioning. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 59:1094-1104
McGrath, Lauren M (2018) Two GWASs Are Better Than One: Enhancing Genetic Discovery for Developmental Phenotypes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 57:77-79
Leopold, Daniel R; Christopher, Micaela E; Olson, Richard K et al. (2018) Invariance of ADHD Symptoms Across Sex and Age: a Latent Analysis of ADHD and Impairment Ratings from Early Childhood into Adolescence. J Abnorm Child Psychol :
Aboud, Katherine S; Barquero, Laura A; Cutting, Laurie E (2018) Prefrontal mediation of the reading network predicts intervention response in dyslexia. Cortex 101:96-106
Ricker, Ashley A; Corley, Robin; DeFries, John C et al. (2018) Examining the influence of perceived stress on developmental change in memory and perceptual speed for adopted and nonadopted individuals. Dev Psychol 54:138-150
DeMille, Mellissa M C; Tang, Kevin; Mehta, Chintan M et al. (2018) Worldwide distribution of the DCDC2 READ1 regulatory element and its relationship with phoneme variation across languages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 115:4951-4956
Wilkey, Eric D; Cutting, Laurie E; Price, Gavin R (2018) Neuroanatomical correlates of performance in a state-wide test of math achievement. Dev Sci 21:
Devanna, P; Chen, X S; Ho, J et al. (2018) Next-gen sequencing identifies non-coding variation disrupting miRNA-binding sites in neurological disorders. Mol Psychiatry 23:1375-1384
Frijters, Jan C; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C; Boada, Richard et al. (2018) Reading-Related Causal Attributions for Success and Failure: Dynamic Links With Reading Skill. Read Res Q 53:127-148

Showing the most recent 10 out of 201 publications