RESEARCH PROJECT 2 Research Study 2 is integrated into the TRANSFORM Center to promote the next generation of research on child maltreatment, translation of research findings into clinical and preventive interventions, and dissemination of research and practice knowledge/skills to varied stakeholders. The research is informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective, incorporating multiple levels of analysis within a lifespan framework. Child maltreatment frequently results in serious adverse consequences to diverse psychological and biological systems in the course of development that have long-term detrimental effects on physical and mental health. Thus, increasing knowledge of the mechanisms through which child maltreatment impacts health and well- being, and advancing effective interventions, are of crucial public health significance. Project 2 evaluates the long-term consequences of child maltreatment on adult physical and mental health through longitudinal follow- up of individuals initially assessed in childhood during adulthood. The follow-up will include a randomly- selected sample of 600 individuals aged 21-44 years from a larger existing sample. During school-age years, these adults participated in research at Mt. Hope Family Center, and comprehensive measurements of diverse aspects of maltreatment since birth were obtained, providing a more in-depth coverage of maltreatment experiences than adult retrospective self-report. Multi-domain, multi-informant measurements of childhood adaptive/maladaptive functioning were assessed, including childhood measures of cortisol regulation, providing a rare opportunity to evaluate models of long-term predictors of adult mental and physical health. In adulthood a comprehensive battery of measures from participants will be obtained. In addition to current life status, we will assess cumulative life stress and history of trauma, as well as personal adaptive resources, i.e., self- efficacy, self-esteem, emotion regulation, personality. Cortisol regulation will be obtained through hair samples and in-home saliva samples. Anthropometric and cardiac measurements will be obtained as well as multiple biomarkers and immune functions assessed via blood samples. Blood draws will also provide DNA to determine targeted genotypes and epigenetic modifications. Finally, physical and mental health will be assessed by structured interviews and questionnaires. Analyses will evaluate long-term consequences of child maltreatment on cumulative stress, personal resources, allostatic load, epigenetic modifications, and physical and mental health outcomes. We also will evaluate developmentally how earlier quality of childhood adaptation and cortisol regulation may mediate adult outcomes, and genetic and epigenetic moderation of these mediational processes. This work will provide the foundation for the next generation of advances in child maltreatment research and insight into new prevention and intervention targets.