Our broad goals in this research are to study the biological constraints and the role of experience in setting up functionally specialized neural systems in normal development and to study the nature and extent of changes in this process in cases of abnormal development. An important approach in this endeavor is to study changes in brain organization that occur as a function of chronological age and to contrast these with changes linked to specific abilities when age is held constant. The variability occurring in normal development provides one opportunity to address this issue. The study of abnormal development, as in the case of language impaired (LI) children, children with focal brain lesions (FL children) and children with Williams Syndrome, provides another opportunity to link specific changes in neural development with alterations in specific sensory and cognitive abilities. To this end we will record event-related potentials (ERPs) from over several brain regions making comparisons within and between the cerebral hemispheres in a series of studies designed to assess different aspects of sensory, language and cognitive processing.
The specific aims of the proposed series of experiments ar to asses the hypotheses that (a) different neural systems mediate semantic and syntactic aspects of language processing from an early age, (b) neural systems important in grammatical processing are more vulnerable to early experience that are the systems that mediate semantic processing and these may be abnormally organized in language impaired children and FL children and Williams Syndrome; (c) abnormal organization of neural systems associated with processing rapidly presented auditory stimuli is linked with abnormal language acquisition in a subset of Li children, and may also be linked to the sparing of language in Williams Ss. (d) to determine whether the functional specializations of the right hemisphere for face recognition are preceded by and depend upon the development of left hemisphere specialization for language and so may be abnormally organized in children with abnormal language acquisition and (e) to examine the timing and organization of neural systems that mediate different aspects of visuo-spatial processing in populations of children who show selective deficits in processing local versus global properties of hierarchical forms.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)
Type
Specialized Center (P50)
Project #
5P50NS022343-13
Application #
6273714
Study Section
Project Start
1998-05-01
Project End
1999-04-30
Budget Start
1997-10-01
Budget End
1998-09-30
Support Year
13
Fiscal Year
1998
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Name
University of California San Diego
Department
Type
DUNS #
077758407
City
La Jolla
State
CA
Country
United States
Zip Code
92093
Ng, Rowena; Lai, Philip; Brown, Timothy T et al. (2018) Neuroanatomical correlates of emotion-processing in children with unilateral brain lesion: A preliminary study of limbic system organization. Soc Neurosci 13:688-700
Stiles, Joan (2017) Principles of brain development. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 8:
Jernigan, Terry L; Stiles, Joan (2017) Construction of the human forebrain. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci 8:
Fan, Chun Chieh; Brown, Timothy T; Bartsch, Hauke et al. (2017) Williams syndrome-specific neuroanatomical profile and its associations with behavioral features. Neuroimage Clin 15:343-347
Ng, Rowena; Brown, Timothy T; Järvinen, Anna M et al. (2016) Structural integrity of the limbic-prefrontal connection: Neuropathological correlates of anxiety in Williams syndrome. Soc Neurosci 11:187-92
Ng, Rowena; Brown, Timothy T; Erhart, Matthew et al. (2016) Morphological differences in the mirror neuron system in Williams syndrome. Soc Neurosci 11:277-88
Yousefian, Omid; Ballantyne, Angela O; Doo, Alex et al. (2015) Clock drawing in children with perinatal stroke. Pediatr Neurol 52:592-8
Polse, Lara R; Reilly, Judy S (2015) Orthographic and semantic processing in young readers. J Res Read 38:47-72
Lai, Philip T; Reilly, Judy S (2015) Language and affective facial expression in children with perinatal stroke. Brain Lang 147:85-95
Webb, Sara Jane; Bernier, Raphael; Henderson, Heather A et al. (2015) Guidelines and best practices for electrophysiological data collection, analysis and reporting in autism. J Autism Dev Disord 45:425-43

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