This is a resubmission of an application for 5-year renewal of a family study of alcohol dependence (AD) that nests a high risk genetic/family study within an epidemiologic framework - a novel paradigm for research on AD. Its oversample of African-American (AfA) families (a neglected group in the AD literature)permits testing long-standing models of adolescent and young adult alcohol involvement that have been based for the most part on Caucasian (""""""""Majority- """"""""maj"""""""") youth. In the renewal, we propose continuing to assess at 2-year intervals offspring (70 percent 18 or younger at intake) in low and high risk families. Ascertained from birth records, families are classified as high risk (by maternal report that the father is an excessive drinker) or low risk (no such report) Additional families of men with 2+ DWI's (from driving records) enrich the high risk sample with severely alcoholic men. Mothers and offspring are administered a comprehensive psychiatric interview by telephone (fathers are given a shorter interview); offspring are re-interviewed at 2-yr intervals. During the first grant period, 472 families (255 AfA, 217 Maj) have been enrolled; the last intake sample will be enrolled by renewal month 15. Follow up rates for the first intake sample of offspring (n=221) were 90 percent (85 percent completed, 5 percent pending at this writing). Further follow-up is on hold pending funding. Our projections are that by the end of the renewal period, 3 assessment waves will be available on all offspring, and 4 waves on about half.
Our aims i n the first grant period were to test the deviance proneness and negative affect regulation models of AD vulnerability; to study sibling influences on alcohol and other substance involvement, and to investigate cross sectional and longitudinal influences of parenting, paternal AD, other parental psychopathology, offspring own psychopathology, traumatic events, and life transitions (marriage, work, school, parenthood) on alcohol (and other substance) use outcomes - in AfA and Maj families by risk.
These aims are retained in the renewal, with an emphasis now on application of longitudinal data to test for interactions between family risk status and ethnicity on progression of alcohol use disorders (AUD) (development, persistence and desistence) by studying influences: of other substances (Aim 1); of parental characteristics including rearing styles and psychopathology (Aim 2); sibling influences (Aim 3); and in the context of 2 prominent models of AD vulnerability.
Our aims together with design elements will continue progress towards understanding the etiology and course of AUDs applicable to adolescents and young adults in ethnically diverse families. ? ? ? ?

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
Research Project (R01)
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Study Section
Behavioral Genetics and Epidemiology Study Section (BGES)
Program Officer
Breslow, Rosalind
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Washington University
Schools of Medicine
Saint Louis
United States
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Sartor, Carolyn E; Grant, Julia D; Few, Lauren R et al. (2018) Childhood Trauma and Two Stages of Alcohol Use in African American and European American Women: Findings from a Female Twin Sample. Prev Sci 19:795-804
Werner, Kimberly B; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M; Sewell, Whitney et al. (2018) The Impact of Traumatic Experiences on Risky Sexual Behaviors in Black and White Young Adult Women. Womens Health Issues 28:421-429
Agrawal, Arpana; Grant, Julia D; Haber, Jon Randolph et al. (2017) Differences between White and Black young women in the relationship between religious service attendance and alcohol involvement. Am J Addict 26:437-445
Arshanapally, Suraj; Werner, Kimberly B; Sartor, Carolyn E et al. (2017) The Association Between Racial Discrimination and Suicidality among African-American Adolescents and Young Adults. Arch Suicide Res 22:584-595
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Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V et al. (2016) Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women. Psychol Addict Behav 30:423-33
Sartor, Carolyn E; Jackson, Kristina M; McCutcheon, Vivia V et al. (2016) Progression from First Drink, First Intoxication, and Regular Drinking to Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison of African American and European American Youth. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 40:1515-23
Werner, K B; McCutcheon, V V; Agrawal, A et al. (2016) The association of specific traumatic experiences with cannabis initiation and transition to problem use: Differences between African-American and European-American women. Drug Alcohol Depend 162:162-9
Sartor, Carolyn E; Grant, Julia D; Duncan, Alexis E et al. (2016) Childhood sexual abuse and two stages of cigarette smoking in African-American and European-American young women. Addict Behav 60:131-6
Agrawal, Arpana; Grant, Julia D; Lynskey, Michael T et al. (2016) The genetic relationship between cannabis and tobacco cigarette use in European- and African-American female twins and siblings. Drug Alcohol Depend 163:165-71

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