Ultimately, we seek to understand how saliva of arthropods contribute to the interaction of vectors with vertebrate hosts. Toward this end, we shall investigate anti-hemostatic, vasoactive anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressive properties of vector saliva, characterizing them both pharmacologically and biochemically. Ixodid and argasid ticks, sand flies, triatomine bugs, and fleas will be included in these studies. In particular, anti-hemostatic studies will concentrate on the antiplatelet activity of Ornithodorus moubata. Vasoactive studies will study further the erythema-inducing factor of Lutzomyia longipalpis, characterize the salivary vasodilator of Rhodnius prolixus, and investigate the erythema-inducing factor of Xenopsylla cheopis. Anti-inflammatory activities will investigate the kininase activity of O. moubata and characterize the LTB immunoreactive material of Ixodes dammini, possibly an LTB antagonist. Immunosuppressive activities will concentrate on the anti-neutrophil activity of I. dammini saliva, as well as its anti-lymphocyte activation property. This work explores the suggestion that saliva of hermatophagous arthropods mainly serves an antihemostatic and antiinflammatory role during blood-finding and blood-feeding. As this idea is further explored, it is our hope more will be learned on the biology of vectors and the parasites they vector, and that novel pharmacological compounds will be found.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
5R01AI018694-12
Application #
2060752
Study Section
Tropical Medicine and Parasitology Study Section (TMP)
Project Start
1982-09-30
Project End
1996-02-29
Budget Start
1994-12-01
Budget End
1996-02-29
Support Year
12
Fiscal Year
1995
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Name
University of Arizona
Department
Zoology
Type
Schools of Earth Sciences/Natur
DUNS #
City
Tucson
State
AZ
Country
United States
Zip Code
85721
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Perez de Leon, A A; Valenzuela, J G; Tabachnick, W J (1998) Anticoagulant activity in salivary glands of the insect vector Culicoides variipennis sonorensis by an inhibitor of factor Xa. Exp Parasitol 88:121-30
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Champagne, D E; Smartt, C T; Ribeiro, J M et al. (1995) The salivary gland-specific apyrase of the mosquito Aedes aegypti is a member of the 5'-nucleotidase family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:694-8
Nussenzveig, R H; Bentley, D L; Ribeiro, J M (1995) Nitric oxide loading of the salivary nitric-oxide-carrying hemoproteins (nitrophorins) in the blood-sucking bug Rhodnius prolixus. J Exp Biol 198:1093-8

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