This application is a request for continued funding for Years 24-28 of 5R01 AI033144, which is a highly productive research program aimed at identifying genetic?and other?factors that explain inter-individual variations in immune responses to live measles vaccine among otherwise healthy individuals. Measles is the most contagious human disease and a leading cause of death in children globally, with over 254,928 cases and 134,000 deaths reported worldwide in 2015. Large outbreaks continue to occur even in highly immunized settings. From 2014 to 2016, the US reported 896 known measles cases, with the 2014 cases being the highest number of cases since measles elimination in 2000. Of 159 measles cases reported to the CDC during January?April 2015, 18% had received measles vaccine. While the vast majority of measles cases are due to failure to receive vaccine, outbreaks have repeatedly revealed vaccine failure among individuals who have received two doses of MMR. The current vaccine results in a failure rate of 2-10% after two doses, which presents a critical public health conundrum. For this reason, our proposal focuses on identifying signatures of measles immunity after a 3rd dose of MMR ? focusing on signatures of high and low/non-response to measles vaccine. In this proposal, we move from the narrower genetics-only approach (gene sequence) to the broader systems biology approach (gene expression/regulation, other) in order to identify factors that together identify and define innate and adaptive immune response signatures (i.e., the low and high dimensional data that predict the immune outcomes of interest). Such an approach has not been previously used for measles vaccine and will allow us to computationally model the integration of immunologic and ?omic? data, in combination with established network resources, to define the relationship between live measles vaccination and human immune responses. To accomplish this, we propose the following Specific Aims: (1) A systems biology study of innate immune responses; (2) A systems biology study of humoral B cell immune responses; (3) A systems biology study of the interrelationships between innate and humoral immune responses. This proposal is innovative and significant in that it will use novel causal mediation analytical approaches to evaluate the effect of subject characteristics on genomics and immune response outcomes, as well as how transcriptomic information mediates the link between subject characteristics and immune response outcomes. Our work can lead to an enhanced understanding of innate and adaptive vaccine immunogenicity, potential new understandings of the mechanisms underlying vaccine failure, novel information that could inform future rational vaccine design, and the ability to ?relate changes at the molecular level to global properties observed within the biological system.?

Public Health Relevance

Relevance to Public Health: This grant will develop comprehensive information on the contribution and influence of high dimensional genetic and non-genetic factors on measles vaccine-induced immune responses after a 3rd dose of MMR vaccine ? filling a critical public health data gap. Our goals are to identify signatures of immune response in high- and low/non-responders to measles vaccine that predict immune outcomes. These data will allow for enhanced understandings of measles vaccine immunogenicity and mechanisms of vaccine response and failure.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Research Project (R01)
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Infectious Diseases, Reproductive Health, Asthma and Pulmonary Conditions Study Section (IRAP)
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Park, Eun-Chung
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Mayo Clinic, Rochester
United States
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Poland, G A; Ovsyannikova, I G; Kennedy, R B (2018) Personalized vaccinology: A review. Vaccine 36:5350-5357
Haralambieva, Iana H; Kennedy, Richard B; Simon, Whitney L et al. (2018) Differential miRNA expression in B cells is associated with inter-individual differences in humoral immune response to measles vaccination. PLoS One 13:e0191812
Voigt, Emily A; Haralambieva, Iana H; Larrabee, Beth L et al. (2018) Polymorphisms in the Wilms Tumor Gene Are Associated With Interindividual Variations in Rubella Virus-Specific Cellular Immunity After Measles-Mumps-Rubella II Vaccination. J Infect Dis 217:560-566
Haralambieva, Iana H; Gibson, Michael J; Kennedy, Richard B et al. (2017) Characterization of rubella-specific humoral immunity following two doses of MMR vaccine using proteome microarray technology. PLoS One 12:e0188149
Haralambieva, Iana H; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B et al. (2017) Genome-wide associations of CD46 and IFI44L genetic variants with neutralizing antibody response to measles vaccine. Hum Genet 136:421-435
Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Larrabee, Beth R; Schaid, Daniel J et al. (2017) Immunoglobulin GM and KM genes and measles vaccine-induced humoral immunity. Vaccine 35:5444-5447
Schaid, Daniel J; Haralambieva, Iana H; Larrabee, Beth R et al. (2017) Heritability of vaccine-induced measles neutralizing antibody titers. Vaccine 35:1390-1394
Poland, Gregory A; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Poland, Caroline M et al. (2016) Vaccinology in the third millennium: scientific and social challenges. Curr Opin Virol 17:116-125
Haralambieva, Iana H; Zimmermann, Michael T; Ovsyannikova, Inna G et al. (2016) Whole Transcriptome Profiling Identifies CD93 and Other Plasma Cell Survival Factor Genes Associated with Measles-Specific Antibody Response after Vaccination. PLoS One 11:e0160970
Voigt, Emily A; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Haralambieva, Iana H et al. (2016) Genetically defined race, but not sex, is associated with higher humoral and cellular immune responses to measles vaccination. Vaccine 34:4913-4919

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