The complement component C1q is a member of the defense collagen family of proteins that have been shown to enhance phagocytosis of pathogens, cellular debris and apoptotic cells. Phagocytosis, while resulting in the killing and clearance of infectious agents, is also a first step in antigen processing and presentation necessary for the induction of an adaptive response. It is now being recognized that pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune system have significant influence in determining the nature of the subsequent adaptive response. Just as TLRs influence both effector function and gene expression profiles in response to pathogens, it is becoming increasingly evident that other recognition molecules, including specific complement components, not only play a role in the effector phase of the immune response, but also act as """"""""biosensors"""""""" contributing to the programming of a subsequent immune response. As such, this first response assesses the level of """"""""danger"""""""" of an intrusion or injury and initiates an appropriate program of protection (when the challenge is a pathogen) and/or suppression of detrimental responses (to avoid autoimmune responses and/or a tissue-damaging level of inflammation). Our preliminary results demonstrate that under specific conditions, C1q, while facilitating phagocytosis, can suppress specific proinflammatory cytokine production. We propose here to test the hypothesis that specific gene expression patterns are activated by ligation of the cell by C1q and other defense collagens, and that those patterns are modified by both the differentiation state of the phagocyte and the other simultaneous signals received by the cell. We propose to characterize the signaling pathways and parameters that lead to the specific cytokine gene expression. Therapeutic targeting of these """"""""biosensors"""""""", exemplified by C1q/MBL and the cell surface molecules/complexes that transfer the signals to the cell, should facilitate more effective protective responses to pathogens (including biodefense strategies), the development of more efficient and protective vaccine strategies, and suppression of autoimmunity. ? ? ? ?

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-III-F (01))
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Sawyer, Richard T
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University of California Irvine
Schools of Arts and Sciences
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Clarke, Elizabeth V; Weist, Brian M; Walsh, Craig M et al. (2015) Complement protein C1q bound to apoptotic cells suppresses human macrophage and dendritic cell-mediated Th17 and Th1 T cell subset proliferation. J Leukoc Biol 97:147-60
Clarke, Elizabeth V; Tenner, Andrea J (2014) Complement modulation of T cell immune responses during homeostasis and disease. J Leukoc Biol 96:745-56
Ueno, Norikiyo; Harker, Katherine S; Clarke, Elizabeth V et al. (2014) Real-time imaging of Toxoplasma-infected human monocytes under fluidic shear stress reveals rapid translocation of intracellular parasites across endothelial barriers. Cell Microbiol 16:580-95
Benoit, Marie E; Hernandez, Michael X; Dinh, Minhan L et al. (2013) C1q-induced LRP1B and GPR6 proteins expressed early in Alzheimer disease mouse models, are essential for the C1q-mediated protection against amyloid-? neurotoxicity. J Biol Chem 288:654-65
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Clarke, Elizabeth V; Benoit, Marie E; Tenner, Andrea J (2013) Purification of Human Monocytes and Lymphocyte Populations by Counter Current Elutriation- A Short Protocol. Bio Protoc 3:
Benoit, Marie E; Clarke, Elizabeth V; Tenner, Andrea J (2013) C1q Binding to and Uptake of Apoptotic Lymphocytes by Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages. Bio Protoc 3:
Benoit, Marie E; Clarke, Elizabeth V; Morgado, Pedro et al. (2012) Complement protein C1q directs macrophage polarization and limits inflammasome activity during the uptake of apoptotic cells. J Immunol 188:5682-93
Benoit, Marie E; Tenner, Andrea J (2011) Complement protein C1q-mediated neuroprotection is correlated with regulation of neuronal gene and microRNA expression. J Neurosci 31:3459-69
Fraser, Deborah A; Pisalyaput, Karntipa; Tenner, Andrea J (2010) C1q enhances microglial clearance of apoptotic neurons and neuronal blebs, and modulates subsequent inflammatory cytokine production. J Neurochem 112:733-43

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