The goal of the 5-A-Day POWER PLUS Program is to assess the effects of a school-based intervention for promoting increased consumption of fruits and vegetables among elementary school children to reduce their risk of cancer. The school-based intervention consists of four components: food service environmental changes, classroom curricula, family involvement, and industry and media support. The hypothesis is that the POWER PLUS Program will result in increased consumption of total fruits and vegetables and greater awareness and understanding of the 5-A-Day message. This will bc assessed through a trial in which 34 elementary schools from within one urban school district in Minnesota are randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. The primary endpoint will be the number of servings of total fruits and vegetables consumed per day, measured in students between the fourth and sixth grades. Specifically, the study will evaluate the hypothesis that children in the intervention schools, in comparison with those in the control schools, will demonstrate at follow-up an average number of total daily fruit and vegetable servings that is at least one serving greater, after adjustment for baseline values. Measurable endpoints include: (1) total dietary fruit and vegetable intake (reflected in 24-hour recall values) that is one serving greater for students in the intervention sites than those in controls; (2) total fruit and vegetable consumption in the school lunch program (reflected in plate waste study values) that is 1/2 serving greater for students in the intervention sites; and (3) awareness and understanding of the 5-A-Day message, related health knowledge, and behavioral skill scores related to fruit and vegetable consumption that are 30% greater in the intervention than control sites, measured by a health behavior questionnaire. A secondary goal of the study will bc to determine whether the family involvement and industry/media components of the intervention can bc successfully integrated with the more conventional POWER PLUS school-based components. Family involvement will be measured through a telephone interview survey. Industry participation will bc measured through products contributed for the intervention such as incentives, public service announcements for use in the schools, and actual fruits and vegetables for consumption in classrooms and at home.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (SRC (72))
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Minnesota State Department of Health
St. Paul
United States
Zip Code
Harnack, Lisa; Lytle, Leslie; Himes, John H et al. (2009) Low awareness of overweight status among parents of preschool-aged children, Minnesota, 2004-2005. Prev Chronic Dis 6:A47
Reynolds, Kim D; Bishop, Donald B; Chou, Chih-Ping et al. (2004) Contrasting mediating variables in two 5-a-day nutrition intervention programs. Prev Med 39:882-93
Gray, Clifton; Lytle, Leslie A; Mays, Rita et al. (2002) Foods on students' trays when they leave the cafeteria line as a proxy for foods eaten at lunch in a school-based study. J Am Diet Assoc 102:407-9
Perry, Cheryl L; Zauner, Marguerite; Oakes, J Michael et al. (2002) Evaluation of a theater production about eating behavior of children. J Sch Health 72:256-61
Story, M; Mays, R W; Bishop, D B et al. (2000) 5-a-day Power Plus: process evaluation of a multicomponent elementary school program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Health Educ Behav 27:187-200
Perry, C L; Bishop, D B; Taylor, G et al. (1998) Changing fruit and vegetable consumption among children: the 5-a-Day Power Plus program in St. Paul, Minnesota. Am J Public Health 88:603-9
Eldridge, A L; Smith-Warner, S A; Lytle, L A et al. (1998) Comparison of 3 methods for counting fruits and vegetables for fourth-grade students in the Minnesota 5 A Day Power Plus Program. J Am Diet Assoc 98:777-82;quiz 783-4