The overall goals of this longitudinal study are to examine the etiologic determinants of adolescent/young adult drug use and the consequences of use on the individual's functioning. The original sample consisted of 976 youngsters and their mothers who were first seen when the children were ages l - 10 (Tl), then at 9-18 (T2), then at 11-20 (T3), and again at 18- 27 (T4). A fifth data collection (T5) is proposed to accomplish the following: (1) to examine interrelations and interactions of personality, family, peer, and ecological factors (starting in early childhood) as they affect the course of drug use over time (i.e., onset, stability, and change); (2) to study the consequences of long-term drug use on adolescent and young adult intra- and interpersonal functioning; (3) to examine, using data on the original child and his/her parents and siblings, the familial transmission of drug and alcohol use behaviors. As with the previous data collections, separate interviews with adolescents/young adults will be conducted in their own homes by trained interviewers. Scales with adequate psychometric properties measuring the independent variables will be developed from the interview schedules. The primary analytic techniques will be causal analysis and/or hierarchical regression. The significance of this study lies in its longitudinal design with in-depth intra- and interpersonal data available at several crucial stages of development. These data allow us not only to examine the pathways to drug use from the very beginning but also to study the course of drug behavior over time, i.e., the factors related to the subject's becoming more (or less) involved in drug use over a span of years. Such knowledge will help pinpoint those adolescents/young adults at risk for increased drug involvement and will provide detailed and specific guidelines for prevention and treatment. Our longitudinal study of the consequences of drug use is unique in that the long-term effects of use can be evaluated to see if their impact is cumulative. The effect of drug use on intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning, parenting behavior, and educational and vocational achievement will be a major focus of the study. In addition, identification of childhood and adolescent factors that can mitigate or compensate for the impact of drug consequences on later functioning would provide additional aids for effective prevention and treatment efforts.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Research Project (R01)
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Drug Abuse Epidemiology and Prevention Research Review Committee (DAPA)
Program Officer
Normand, Jacques
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Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Public Health & Prev Medicine
Schools of Medicine
New York
United States
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Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G et al. (2017) Lack of Preventive Health Behaviors in the Early Forties: The Role of Earlier Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking From Adolescence to Adulthood. Subst Use Misuse 52:1527-1537
Brook, Judith S; Balka, Elinor B; Zhang, Chenshu et al. (2017) ADHD, Conduct Disorder, Substance Use Disorder, and Nonprescription Stimulant Use. J Atten Disord 21:776-782
Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G et al. (2016) Longitudinal psychosocial factors related to symptoms of Internet addiction among adults in early midlife. Addict Behav 62:65-72
Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Leukefeld, Carl G et al. (2016) Marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood: developmental trajectories and their outcomes. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 51:1405-1415
Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G et al. (2016) Trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood as predictors of unemployment status in the early forties. Am J Addict 25:203-9
Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu et al. (2016) Psychosocial Predictors of Mental Health Service Utilization Among Women During their Mid-Sixties. J Behav Health Serv Res 43:143-54
Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G et al. (2016) Psychosocial Factors Related to Underuse of Medical Services. J Urban Health 93:652-65
Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G et al. (2016) Associations between compulsive buying and substance dependence/abuse, major depressive episodes, and generalized anxiety disorder among men and women. J Addict Dis 35:298-304
Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, David W et al. (2015) Compulsive buying: Earlier illicit drug use, impulse buying, depression, and adult ADHD symptoms. Psychiatry Res 228:312-7
Brook, Judith S; Balka, Elinor B; Zhang, Chenshu et al. (2015) Longitudinal Smoking Patterns: Do They Predict Symptoms of ADHD in Adults? J Atten Disord :

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