American Indians are among the most disadvantaged of all U. S. populations, suffering from unemployment, prejudice, lack of educational opportunity and high rates of diabetes, tuberculosis, adult alcoholism, infant mortality, adolescent suicide and death by accidents. Many of these problems are either rooted in or exacerbated by substance use. The national U. S. population surveys, however, do not include enough American Indians to adequately assess adolescent substance use. We have provided epidemiology data on drug use of reservation-based American Indian youth since 1974. Indian youth use drugs at rates two to three times those for other American youth. There is some evidence that American Indian youth also have high rates for violence, criminal behaviors, and high rates of victimization, but detailed data on these problems are not available. It is also likely that alcohol and drug use are involved in or associated with these problems, but there are no data on the links between substance use and these other problems. This project will continue to chart the trends in the epidemiology of drug use among American Indian youth who live on reservations. It will also determine the rates for violence, victimization, and other criminal behaviors including shoplifting, car theft, petty theft, serious theft, driving while drunk or on drugs, other driving offenses, school offenses, drug distribution, vandalism, sexual assault and firesetting. Questions also ask whether alcohol and/or drugs were involved in these acts. The project will survey a sample of youth from a 9 Indian reservations each year, stratified for geographic location and relative isolation from urban centers. The in-school sample will include all 7th through 12th grade students, with follow-up surveying to obtain information from absentees. A sample of dropouts from each reservation will also be surveyed, stratified so substance use, victimization and criminal behaviors can be assessed for early (7th-8th grade), middle (9-10) and late (11-12) dropouts.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (SRCD)
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Colorado State University-Fort Collins
Schools of Arts and Sciences
Fort Collins
United States
Zip Code
Stanley, Linda R; Swaim, Randall C (2018) Latent Classes of Substance Use Among American Indian and White Students Living on or Near Reservations, 2009-2013. Public Health Rep 133:432-441
Prince, Mark A; Swaim, Randall C; Stanley, Linda R et al. (2017) Perceived harm as a mediator of the relationship between social norms and marijuana use and related consequences among American Indian youth. Drug Alcohol Depend 181:102-107
Stanley, Linda R; Swaim, Randall C; Dieterich, Sara E (2017) The Role of Norms in Marijuana Use Among American Indian Adolescents. Prev Sci 18:406-415
Spillane, Nichea S; Weyandt, Lisa; Oster, Danielle et al. (2017) Social contextual risk factors for stimulant use among adolescent American Indians. Drug Alcohol Depend 179:167-173
Swaim, Randall C; Stanley, Linda R (2016) Multivariate family factors in lifetime and current marijuana use among American Indian and white adolescents residing on or near reservations. Drug Alcohol Depend 169:92-100
Swaim, Randall C (2016) Moderating effects of perceived social benefits on inhalant initiation among American Indian and White youth. Psychol Addict Behav 30:398-405
Swaim, Randall C (2015) The moderating effects of perceived emotional benefits on inhalant initiation among American Indian and white youth. Am J Addict 24:554-60
Stanley, Linda R; Swaim, Randall C (2015) Initiation of alcohol, marijuana, and inhalant use by American-Indian and white youth living on or near reservations. Drug Alcohol Depend 155:90-6
Stanley, Linda R; Harness, Susan D; Swaim, Randall C et al. (2014) Rates of substance use of American Indian students in 8th, 10th, and 12th grades living on or near reservations: update, 2009-2012. Public Health Rep 129:156-63
Swaim, Randall C; Stanley, Linda R; Beauvais, Fred (2013) The normative environment for substance use among American Indian students and white students attending schools on or near reservations. Am J Orthopsychiatry 83:422-9

Showing the most recent 10 out of 42 publications