Based upon our compelling findings that children who began their schooling within an inner city community vary dramatically in their pathways to adulthood, we are requesting additional support to better understand the role that economic disadvantage has for the etiology and maintenance of drug use and other problem outcomes. There is a dearth of convincing scientific evidence that people who are poor, use more drugs than those who are not poor. Yet policy makers and social scientists often describe grave problems of drug use within America's inner cities. The risk factors for drug use as shown in the first stage of our work includes individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics. The focus will now be on those factors that are associated with poverty and disadvantage, such as receipt of welfare, living below the poverty level, having difficulty paying one's bills, neighborhood level poverty, and relative deprivation. We will also examine the neighborhood context in terms of the relationship between economic disadvantage and drug use. The population for the initial funded grant consisted of an epidemiologically defined cohort of 1242 African American adults first studied in 19676, when they were in first grade in Woodlawn, an inner city neighborhood in Chicago. In addition, we will also include in our analyses a Baltimore birth cohort originally enrolled at birth in the early 1960s and most recently followed in 1992-1994, the 1992 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, and the National Co-Morbidity Survey with data collected in 1990-92. These three additional data sets will allow for the comparison of findings from the Woodlawn Study with three other data sets, all will data collected on young adults of approximately the same age at approximately the same time; one of the data sets includes a Baltimore sample quite similar demographically to the Woodlawn survey, and one represents a subset aged 31-34 of a national population to be used as a comparison group. The addition of the Baltimore longitudinal data will allow us to consider the generalizability of the Woodlawn findings; the two national data sets will provide benchmark to place the two community samples within a national context. This research is designed to understand early developmental patterns leading to drug use and other problem outcomes. Although adult drug use and crime behavior are important problems among the Woodlawn cohort, many of those who began school within this disadvantaged community have reached adulthood without these problems.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Human Development Research Subcommittee (NIDA)
Program Officer
Thomas, Yonette
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Johns Hopkins University
Public Health & Prev Medicine
Schools of Public Health
United States
Zip Code
Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E (2016) Effect of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking on Adulthood Substance Use and Abuse: The Mediating Role of Educational Attainment. Subst Use Misuse 51:141-54
Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E (2014) Long-term effects of adolescent smoking on depression and socioeconomic status in adulthood in an urban African American cohort. J Urban Health 91:526-40
Juon, Hee-Soon; Evans-Polce, Rebecca J; Ensminger, Margaret (2014) Early life conditions of overall and cause-specific mortality among inner-city African Americans. Am J Public Health 104:548-54
Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Green, Kerry M; Ensminger, Margaret E (2012) The Impact of Adolescent Deviance on Marital Trajectories. Deviant Behav 33:185-206
Green, Kerry M; Zebrak, Katarzyna A; Fothergill, Kate E et al. (2012) Childhood and adolescent risk factors for comorbid depression and substance use disorders in adulthood. Addict Behav 37:1240-7
Fothergill, Kate E; Doherty, Elaine E; Robertson, Judith A et al. (2012) A prospective study of childhood and adolescent antecedents of homelessness among a community population of African Americans. J Urban Health 89:432-46
Gould, Robert W; Czoty, Paul W; Nader, Susan H et al. (2011) Effects of varenicline on the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 339:678-86
Juon, Hee-Soon; Fothergill, Kate E; Green, Kerry M et al. (2011) Antecedents and consequences of marijuana use trajectories over the life course in an African American population. Drug Alcohol Depend 118:216-23
Green, Kerry M; Doherty, Elaine E; Reisinger, Heather S et al. (2010) Social integration in young adulthood and the subsequent onset of substance use and disorders among a community population of urban African Americans. Addiction 105:484-93
Ensminger, Margaret E; Juon, Hee-Soon; Lee, Rosalyn et al. (2009) Social Connections in the Inner City: Examination across the Life Course. Longit Life Course Stud 1:11-26

Showing the most recent 10 out of 30 publications