In spite of the negative health effects of cigarette smoking, if current trends continue, smoking rates for women will surpass men by the year 2000. Studies show that women have a greater fear of weight gain after quitting, as well as, they tend to gain more weight to suggest gender specific cessation strategies are needed. Animal and clinical studies suggest that estrogen could decrease appetite behavior and minimize weight gain, as well as, affect mood and therefore could attenuate withdrawal symptoms. However, no study has systematically and comprehensively investigated the different effects of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in smoking cessation in postmenopause where the estrogen level is low. This renewal application will address this area in a randomized double blind nontreatment study conducted in 2 parts over 4 years. Part I investigates if there is a differential effect of ERT on appetitive behavior and withdrawal symptoms in postmenopausal women during short term smoking cessation, i.e., to decrease appetite behavior and minimize weight gain, and affect mood and attenuate withdrawal symptoms. Eligible subjects are randomized to smoking and non-smoking status, and enter a 3-week period of scheduled measurements. Week 1 is baseline with smoking ad lib, and in weeks 2 and 3 some subjects stop smoking while others continue smoking. During these 3 weeks weight, caloric intake, RMR and tobacco withdrawal symptom measurements will be done. Part II is also a short term nontreatment study investigating the additive effects of ERT on the same parameters in postmenopausal women on nicotine replacement. Subjects are randomized to ERT and placebo and monitored for 1 month, then randomized to placebo or active patch. The study design and measurements are identical to Part I. The results of this research will increase our understanding of the functional relationships between ERT and appetitive behavior and withdrawal symptoms in smoking cessation in postmenopausal women. This research will provide new information which will be important and useful in assessing direction for specific and more effective treatment strategies for smoking cessation in women during the postmenopausal years.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Research Project (R01)
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Study Section
Human Development Research Subcommittee (NIDA)
Program Officer
Montoya, Ivan
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University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Family Medicine
Schools of Medicine
United States
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Kia, Farnaaz; Tosun, Nicole; Carlson, Samantha et al. (2018) Examining characteristics associated with quitting smoking during pregnancy and relapse postpartum. Addict Behav 78:114-119
Carlson, Samantha C; Allen, Alicia M; Allen, Sharon S et al. (2017) Differences in mood and cortisol by menstrual phase during acute smoking abstinence: A within-subject comparison. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 25:338-345
Wetherill, Reagan R; Franklin, Teresa R; Allen, Sharon S (2016) Ovarian hormones, menstrual cycle phase, and smoking: a review with recommendations for future studies. Curr Addict Rep 3:1-8
Allen, Alicia M; al'Absi, Mustafa; Lando, Harry et al. (2015) Allopregnanolone association with psychophysiological and cognitive functions during acute smoking abstinence in premenopausal women. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 23:22-8
Hinderaker, Katie; Allen, Alicia M; Tosun, Nicole et al. (2015) The effect of combination oral contraceptives on smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence. Addict Behav 41:148-51
Huttlin, Eileen A; Allen, Alicia M; Tosun, Nicole L et al. (2015) Associations between adrenocortical activity and nicotine response in female smokers by menstrual phase. Addict Behav 50:135-9
Weinberger, Andrea H; Smith, Philip H; Allen, Sharon S et al. (2015) Systematic and meta-analytic review of research examining the impact of menstrual cycle phase and ovarian hormones on smoking and cessation. Nicotine Tob Res 17:407-21
Allen, Alicia M; Lunos, Scott; Heishman, Stephen J et al. (2015) Subjective response to nicotine by menstrual phase. Addict Behav 43:50-3
Allen, Sharon S; Allen, Alicia M; Tosun, Nicole et al. (2014) Smoking- and menstrual-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence by menstrual phase and depressive symptoms. Addict Behav 39:901-6
Allen, Alicia M; Oncken, Cheryl; Hatsukami, Dorothy (2014) Women and Smoking: The Effect of Gender on the Epidemiology, Health Effects, and Cessation of Smoking. Curr Addict Rep 1:53-60

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