Abnormalities of lipid absorption and metabolism are associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases. Thus, there is a need to fully characterize the factors that influence these processes. We have demonstrated that orosensory exposure to dietary fat augments the postprandial rise of serum triacylglycerol (TAG) in humans, in part, through modification of absorptive processes. Because dietary manipulations are the preferred approach for prevention and management of lipid disorders, a better understanding of an orosensory contribution is especially important. This knowledge may hold additional public health, clinical and commercial implications as well. Oral sensory exposure may modulate process associated with taste perception generally and responses modulating energy and essential fatty acid balances.
The Specific Aims are to: 1. Clarify the mechanisms of fat perception; 2. Establish the practical relevance of oral fat exposure effects and 3. Elucidate basic issues in lipid metabolism and the health significance of oral fat exposure.
Aim 1 will be addressed through four psychophysical studies. One will document the taste component for dietary fat and three others will explore possible mechanisms including fatty acid transport across taste receptor cell membranes, modulation of receptor cell responsiveness to other taste compounds and taste cell activation by a fatty acid oxidation product. Three additional studies will characterize the TAG response to oral fat exposures under more realistic feeding conditions to establish is practical implications (Aim 2). One will explore the TAG response to taste mixtures commonly encountered in food. Others will determine the minimal stimulation time and gastric lipid load required to elicit the TAG response as will as the importance of stimulation timing relative to lipid loading on the magnitude of the TAG response. Finally, our most recent observation of a very early TAG peak that contains lipid from a previous meal and is responsive to oral fat exposure, has raised interest in an oral fat exposure effect on lipid absorption processes and the health significance of the effect. This will be explored through stable isotope tracer studies for Aim 3. The proposed work will hold important public health, clinical, commercial and basic biological implications. ? ?

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Research Project (R01)
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Nutrition Study Section (NTN)
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Miles, Carolyn
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Purdue University
Other Domestic Higher Education
West Lafayette
United States
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Mattes, Richard D (2011) Accumulating evidence supports a taste component for free fatty acids in humans. Physiol Behav 104:624-31
Mattes, Richard D (2009) Oral thresholds and suprathreshold intensity ratings for free fatty acids on 3 tongue sites in humans: implications for transduction mechanisms. Chem Senses 34:415-23
Mattes, Richard D (2009) Oral detection of short-, medium-, and long-chain free fatty acids in humans. Chem Senses 34:145-50
Mattes, Richard D (2009) Brief oral stimulation, but especially oral fat exposure, elevates serum triglycerides in humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296:G365-71
Mattes, Richard D (2009) Is there a fatty acid taste? Annu Rev Nutr 29:305-27
Mattes, Richard D (2009) Oral Fat Exposure Pattern and Lipid Loading Effects on the Serum Triacylglycerol Concentration of Humans. Chemosens Percept 2:180-185
Chale-Rush, Angela; Burgess, John R; Mattes, Richard D (2007) Evidence for human orosensory (taste?) sensitivity to free fatty acids. Chem Senses 32:423-31
Mattes, Richard D (2007) Effects of linoleic acid on sweet, sour, salty, and bitter taste thresholds and intensity ratings of adults. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292:G1243-8
Chale-Rush, Angela; Burgess, John R; Mattes, Richard D (2007) Multiple routes of chemosensitivity to free fatty acids in humans. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 292:G1206-12
Mattes, Richard D (2002) Oral fat exposure increases the first phase triacylglycerol concentration due to release of stored lipid in humans. J Nutr 132:3656-62

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