The many studies reporting myopia in response to form deprivation (either with diffusers or lid suture) provide convincing evidence for an effect of visual experience on ocular development. More significantly, there is compelling evidence based on studies involving spectacle lenses that vision actively directs eye growth; specifically, negative lenses which impose hyperopic defocus cause eyes to grow toward myopia, whereas eyes with myopic defocus imposed by positive lenses grow toward hyperopia. These growth changes include choroidal and scleral components, both of which serve to reduce the imposed defocus, a process known as emmetropization. In addition, there appears to be another process that keeps the two eyes yoked (coupled) together such that compensatory growth changes in one eye cause the other eye to change its growth in the same direction, although to a lesser extent. We understand very little about these two mechanisms, yet both are potentially of great clinical significance. Understanding emmetropization may provide the key to preventing myopia in humans. Understanding interocular yoking may help us to understand anisometropia (i.e. the two eyes have different refractions), a common condition in infants. In relation to emetropization, this proposal asks whether the brain is involved. The brain seems not to be required in the case of form deprivation myopia as optic nerve section does not prevent it. However, this is unclear in the case of the lens-induced changes. By interfering with eye-brain communication, I propose to resolve this important issue for the choroidal and scleral components of emmetropization. If preliminary results are confirmed indicating that the brain does play a role, I will try to identify the pathways involved using selective lesioning of the most likely efferent pathways. In relation to interocular yoking in eye growth, this proposal seeks to clarify the conditions under which these interactions occur. I will also assess how the refractive state of each of the eyes (natural or altered experimentally), influences their interactions. If the existence of yoking is confirmed, I propose to identify the pathways involved, again using a selective lesioning approach.

Agency
National Institute of Health (NIH)
Institute
National Eye Institute (NEI)
Type
Research Project (R01)
Project #
1R01EY012392-01
Application #
2741810
Study Section
Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-VISB (06))
Project Start
1999-01-01
Project End
2000-01-31
Budget Start
1999-01-01
Budget End
2000-01-31
Support Year
1
Fiscal Year
1999
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
Name
New England College of Optometry
Department
Other Basic Sciences
Type
Schools of Optometry/Ophthalmol
DUNS #
City
Boston
State
MA
Country
United States
Zip Code
02115
El-Nimri, Nevin W; Wildsoet, Christine F (2018) Effects of Topical Latanoprost on Intraocular Pressure and Myopia Progression in Young Guinea Pigs. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 59:2644-2651
Wang, Kevin K; Metlapally, Ravikanth; Wildsoet, Christine F (2017) Expression Profile of the Integrin Receptor Subunits in the Guinea Pig Sclera. Curr Eye Res 42:857-863
E Bowrey, Hannah; Zeng, Guang; Y Tse, Dennis et al. (2017) The Effect of Spectacle Lenses Containing Peripheral Defocus on Refractive Error and Horizontal Eye Shape in the Guinea Pig. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 58:2705-2714
Garcia, Mariana B; Jha, Amit K; Healy, Kevin E et al. (2017) A Bioengineering Approach to Myopia Control Tested in a Guinea Pig Model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 58:1875-1886
Ostrin, Lisa A; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F (2016) The pattern ERG in chicks - Stimulus dependence and optic nerve section. Vision Res 128:45-52
Metlapally, Ravikanth; Park, Han Na; Chakraborty, Ranjay et al. (2016) Genome-Wide Scleral Micro- and Messenger-RNA Regulation During Myopia Development in the Mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 57:6089-6097
McFadden, Sally A (2016) Understanding and Treating Myopia: What More We Need to Know and Future Research Priorities. Optom Vis Sci 93:1061-3
Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yue; Hang, Abraham et al. (2016) Differential gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors in chick retina & choroid induced by imposed optical defocus. Vis Neurosci 33:E015
Ostrin, Lisa A; Wildsoet, Christine F (2016) Optic nerve head and intraocular pressure in the guinea pig eye. Exp Eye Res 146:7-16
Zhang, Yan; Raychaudhuri, Suravi; Wildsoet, Christine F (2016) Imposed Optical Defocus Induces Isoform-Specific Up-Regulation of TGF? Gene Expression in Chick Retinal Pigment Epithelium and Choroid but Not Neural Retina. PLoS One 11:e0155356

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