The postnatal development of both the optical and neural visual systems is dependent on visual experience. Visual experience is defined by the information available in the retinal images in the two eyes. The goal of the proposed research is to extend our previous examination of retinal image quality in one eye during infancy to full binocular viewing conditions. We will examine human infants'visual experience in the context of image clarity and image alignment, which are primarily defined by accommodation and vergence responses and their interaction. These studies will document the emergence of the interaction between accommodation and vergence and their role in the development of refractive and accommodative strabismus. There are three specific aims: i) To understand the normal maturation of the relationship between accommodation and vergence with emmetropisation and growth of the distance between the eyes. ii) To determine the relative bias towards accommodation or vergence accuracy during the critical period of human development. iii) To understand the effects of accommodation and vergence behavior on visual experience of infants and children with high hyperopia or strabismus.

Public Health Relevance

This project will determine how young infants and children manage apparently conflicting focusing and eye alignment demands during typical development. It will also investigate why some children develop refractive or accommodative strabismus while others, with apparently matching visual systems, do not. The goal is to develop intervention strategies to prevent this strabismus and associated amblyopia.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Eye Institute (NEI)
Research Project (R01)
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Special Emphasis Panel (ZRG1-IFCN-G (02))
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Araj, Houmam H
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Indiana University Bloomington
Schools of Optometry/Ophthalmol
United States
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Seemiller, Eric S; Port, Nicholas L; Candy, T Rowan (2018) The gaze stability of 4- to 10-week-old human infants. J Vis 18:15
Chen, Angela M; Manh, Vivian; Candy, T Rowan (2018) Longitudinal Evaluation of Accommodation During Treatment for Unilateral Amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 59:2187-2196
Wu, Yifei; Thibos, Larry N; Candy, T Rowan (2018) Two-dimensional simulation of eccentric photorefraction images for ametropes: factors influencing the measurement. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 38:432-446
Seemiller, Eric S; Cumming, Bruce G; Candy, T Rowan (2018) Human infants can generate vergence responses to retinal disparity by 5 to 10 weeks of age. J Vis 18:17
Troyer, Mary E; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Peper, T J et al. (2017) The heterophoria of 3-5 year old children as a function of viewing distance and target type. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 37:7-15
Wu, Yifei; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Babinsky, Erin E et al. (2016) Adaptation of horizontal eye alignment in the presence of prism in young children. J Vis 16:6
Babinsky, Erin; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Candy, T Rowan (2016) Vergence Adaptation to Short-Duration Stimuli in Early Childhood. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 57:920-7
Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Babinsky, Erin E; Wu, Yifei et al. (2016) Objective Measurement of Fusional Vergence Ranges and Heterophoria in Infants and Preschool Children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 57:2678-88
Seemiller, Eric S; Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T Rowan (2016) Sensitivity of vergence responses of 5- to 10-week-old human infants. J Vis 16:20
Babinsky, Erin; Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Candy, T Rowan (2015) Near heterophoria in early childhood. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 56:1406-15

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