P.I. S. Scarlata Phospholipase C-b (PLC?) enzymes are activated by G proteins in response to agents such as hormones and neurotransmitters. PLC? activity causes an increase in intracellular calcium which ultimately leads to profound changes in the cell. Our lab has focused on the mechanism through which G proteins activate PLC? on the molecular level. However, in cultured cells, we find additional and unexpected mechanisms of regulation. First, membrane domains called caveolae can control the duration of PLC? activation by selectively sequestering G protein activators. 1 - In AIM 1, we will use live cell imaging and state of the art fluorescence methods to determine the mechanisms through which caveolae prolongs PLC? - mediated calcium signals and directs signals along specific cellular pathways. 2- We have found that PLCb localizes to the nucleus and cytosol as well as the plasma membrane where its G protein activators are found. We have identified a novel protein partner of PLC? translin-associated protein X (TRAX). TRAX and its partner translin are major components of the siRNA machinery regulating the cellular levels of proteins.
In AIM 2, we will determine the ability of TRAX to deliver PLC? from the nucleus to the plasma membrane upon G protein activation. In parallel, we will determine whether PLC affects translin-TRAX function. 3- The ability of PLC? to generate signals depends on its cellular concentration. We have found that the synucleins can binds to and stabilize PLC? in cells. Alpha-synuclein (AS) is a small unfolded protein of unknown function and is a major component of neurodegenerative plaques. The presence of AS greatly increases PLC? levels, and we find that down-regulation of PLC??causes AS aggregation. Also, gamma- synuclein (GS), the protein encoded by the breast cancer susceptibility gene 1, appears to increase PLCb -mediated migration and cell invasiveness thereby promoting breast cancer.
In AIM 3 we will better define PLC? - synuclein interactions and develop reagents that prevent AS aggregation and reduce GS-induced breast cancer phenotype.

Public Health Relevance

P.I. Scarlata, S. Project Narrative In cells, enzymes are subject to other forms of regulation that are distinct and not seen in vitro. Here, we will continue our studies of the activation of phopsholipase C-2 (PLC2) focusing on its cellular regulation which may be applicable to other enzymes. Importantly, the link between PLC2 and synucleins in promoting neurodegenerative disease and breast cancer will be explored to develop more effective therapeutics.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)
Research Project (R01)
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Biochemistry and Biophysics of Membranes Study Section (BBM)
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Chin, Jean
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State University New York Stony Brook
Schools of Medicine
Stony Brook
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Guo, Yuanjian; Yang, Lu; Haught, Katrina et al. (2015) Osmotic Stress Reduces Ca2+ Signals through Deformation of Caveolae. J Biol Chem 290:16698-707
Guo, Yuanjian; Lu, Zhongju; Cohen, Ira Stephen et al. (2015) Development of a universal RNA beacon for exogenous gene detection. Stem Cells Transl Med 4:476-82
Scarlata, Suzanne; Golebiewska, Urszula (2014) Linking alpha-synuclein properties with oxidation: a hypothesis on a mechanism underling cellular aggregation. J Bioenerg Biomembr 46:93-8
Sahu, Shriya; Philip, Finly; Scarlata, Suzanne (2014) Hydrolysis rates of different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by the RNA silencing promoter complex, C3PO, determines their regulation by phospholipase C?. J Biol Chem 289:5134-44
Golebiewska, Urszula; Zurawsky, Cassandra; Scarlata, Suzanne (2014) Defining the oligomerization state of ?-synuclein in solution and in cells. Biochemistry 53:293-9
Guo, Yuanjian; Scarlata, Suzanne (2013) A loss in cellular protein partners promotes ?-synuclein aggregation in cells resulting from oxidative stress. Biochemistry 52:3913-20
Philip, Finly; Sahu, Shriya; Caso, Giuseppe et al. (2013) Role of phospholipase C-? in RNA interference. Adv Biol Regul 53:319-30
Calizo, Rhodora Cristina; Scarlata, Suzanne (2013) Discrepancy between fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching diffusion measurements of G-protein-coupled receptors. Anal Biochem 440:40-8
Calizo, Rhodora Cristina; Scarlata, Suzanne (2012) A role for G-proteins in directing G-protein-coupled receptor-caveolae localization. Biochemistry 51:9513-23
Philip, Finly; Guo, Yuanjian; Aisiku, Omoz et al. (2012) Phospholipase Cýý1 is linked to RNA interference of specific genes through translin-associated factor X. FASEB J 26:4903-13

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