A series of studies will be conducted to examine the nature of codes utilized in reading. The studies deal with how orthographic, phonological, lexical, and semantic codes are used in foveal and parafoveal vision during reading. In the experiments, readers'eye movements will be monitored and the primary technique involves making display changes in the text contingent upon the position of the readers'eyes. Eye movement data (fixation time, saccade length, fixation probability, and number of fixations) will be examined to determine more precisely (1) how different codes are used in accessing the meaning of fixated words, (2) how attention is deployed during reading, and (3) how the various codes (visual, orthographic, lexical, phonological, and semantic) are used in integrating information across fixations. Many of the experiments deal with college aged skilled readers, but we will also investigate these issues in elderly and beginning readers, as well as readers of Chinese. In addition to the empirical work, we will further develop the E-Z Reader model to account for a broader range of data, and also extend it to account for eye movement behavior in beginning and elderly readers, as well as Chinese readers. The experiments and the modeling work should make it possible to better understand skilled reading and why some people do not read well.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD)
Research Project (R01)
Project #
Application #
Study Section
Language and Communication Study Section (LCOM)
Program Officer
Miller, Brett
Project Start
Project End
Budget Start
Budget End
Support Year
Fiscal Year
Total Cost
Indirect Cost
University of California San Diego
Schools of Arts and Sciences
La Jolla
United States
Zip Code
Angele, Bernhard; Slattery, Timothy J; Rayner, Keith (2016) Two stages of parafoveal processing during reading: Evidence from a display change detection task. Psychon Bull Rev 23:1241-9
Bélanger, Nathalie N; Rayner, Keith (2015) What Eye Movements Reveal about Deaf Readers. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 24:220-226
Schad, Daniel J; Risse, Sarah; Slattery, Timothy et al. (2014) Word frequency in fast priming: Evidence for immediate cognitive control of eye-movements during reading. Vis cogn 22:390-414
Rayner, Keith; Schotter, Elizabeth R; Drieghe, Denis (2014) Lack of semantic parafoveal preview benefit in reading revisited. Psychon Bull Rev 21:1067-72
Blythe, Hazel I; Johnson, Rebecca L; Liversedge, Simon P et al. (2014) Reading transposed text: effects of transposed letter distance and consonant-vowel status on eye movements. Atten Percept Psychophys 76:2424-40
Angele, Bernhard; Laishley, Abby E; Rayner, Keith et al. (2014) The effect of high- and low-frequency previews and sentential fit on word skipping during reading. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 40:1181-203
Yang, Jinmian; Li, Nan; Wang, Suiping et al. (2014) Encoding the target or the plausible preview word? The nature of the plausibility preview benefit in reading Chinese. Vis cogn 22:193-213
Williams, Carrick C; Pollatsek, Alexander; Reichle, Erik D (2014) Examining Eye Movements in Visual Search through Clusters of Objects in a Circular Array. J Cogn Psychol (Hove) 26:1-14
Rayner, Keith; Yang, Jinmian; Schuett, Susanne et al. (2014) The effect of foveal and parafoveal masks on the eye movements of older and younger readers. Psychol Aging 29:205-12
Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N; Rayner, Keith (2014) Phonological and orthographic overlap effects in fast and masked priming. Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 67:1742-67

Showing the most recent 10 out of 168 publications