The widespread use of exercise as a way to improve overall health, achieve better recoveries and better functional activity of mind and body underlines the importance of non-invasive quantitation of oxygen delivery and utilization in skeletal muscle. We have previously developed and evaluated portable, economical spectrophotometers for giving qualitative measures of muscle performance and obtained signif aboutcant comparative evaluations of normal and abnormal populations. Here we propose novel theoretical developments that permit quantitation of muscle function with overlying layers of fat and melanin by using a finite element representation of photon diffusion. We will also construct an unique, portable frequency domain imager (IQI), test it in models and compare it with previous non-quantitative imagers. This new instrument quantifies the following skeletal muscle properties: 1) Oxygen saturation, 2) tissue oxygen gradients, 3) metabolic rates (recovery rates), and 4) microscopic and macroscopic heterogeneities. Co-registration of muscle functional images of localized hypoxia by NIR IQI imaging of HbO2+ M bO2 - Hb + Mb, rH MRS of Mb O2 about Mb and 3iP NMR of PCr about Cr will afford an evaluation of NIR imaging performance. These technologies are used to study skeletal muscle performances in """"""""well known"""""""" populations of elite (Olympic) athletes, """"""""normals"""""""" and geriatrics in order to characterize and quantify the four parameters of these populations. Three populations of abnormal characteristics involve vascular and bioenergetic disability, forms a focus of clinical studies based upon our early success in a cytochrome bct deficiency (Eleff, et al (1984) see Ref 8)). A novel criterion for early detection of mitochondrial desease (MD) is based upon imaging an anomalous response of MD's to exercise, a """"""""paradoxical"""""""" oxygenation (PO) instead of the usual deoxygenation at maximal exercise. The goal in all studies is to determine the effectiveness of the quantitative imaging of exercise or disease induced hypoxia. Basic knowledge of tissue oxygen gradients and their bioenergetic consequences in healthy and diseased skeletal muscle is essential to understand, evaluate and quantify therapeutics for normal and diseased muscle. Our especial goals are improving geriatric performance and detecting mitochondrial disease. See Appendix A for Glossary.

National Institute of Health (NIH)
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Research Project (R01)
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Diagnostic Imaging Study Section (DMG)
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Buxton, Denis B
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Medical Diagnostic Research Foundation
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Nioka, Shoko; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Im, Joohee et al. (2006) Simulation of Mb/Hb in NIRS and oxygen gradient in the human and canine skeletal muscles using H-NMR and NIRS. Adv Exp Med Biol 578:223-8
Hoffman, Jay R; Im, Joohee; Kang, Jie et al. (2005) The effect of a competitive collegiate football season on power performance and muscle oxygen recovery kinetics. J Strength Cond Res 19:509-13
Yu, Guoqiang; Durduran, Turgut; Lech, Gwen et al. (2005) Time-dependent blood flow and oxygenation in human skeletal muscles measured with noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies. J Biomed Opt 10:024027
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Nitta, Takashi; Xundi, Xu; Hatano, Etsuro et al. (2003) Myoglobin gene expression attenuates hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. J Surg Res 110:322-31
Hamaoka, Takafumi; Katsumura, Toshihito; Murase, Norio et al. (2003) Muscle oxygen consumption at onset of exercise by near infrared spectroscopy in humans. Adv Exp Med Biol 530:475-83
Hoffman, Jay R; Im, Joohee; Rundell, Kenneth W et al. (2003) Effect of muscle oxygenation during resistance exercise on anabolic hormone response. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1929-34
Huang, Ping; Chance, Britton; Wang, Xin et al. (2003) Modeling of oxygen diffusion and metabolism from capillary to muscle. Adv Exp Med Biol 540:325-30
Nioka, S; McCully, K; McClellan, G et al. (2003) Oxygen transport and intracellular bioenergetics on stimulated cat skeletal muscle. Adv Exp Med Biol 510:267-72
Szmedra, L; Im, J; Nioka, S et al. (2001) Hemoglobin/myoglobin oxygen desaturation during Alpine skiing. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:232-6

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