Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a critical public health problem. Heart failure (HF) affects over 5 million adults in the United States (US), and is a major source of morbidity, mortality, and impaired quality of life. Approximately half of individuals with HF have a preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), termed HF with preserved EF (HFpEF). While there are several effective pharmacologic therapies for HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), none have been identified for HFpEF. There is an urgent need to identify therapies that target mechanisms of pathophysiologic progression of HFpEF. Hypertension, which is present in approximately 80% of individuals with HFpEF, is the foremost modifiable risk factor for the development and progression of HFpEF. Despite the clinical importance of hypertension in HFpEF, there is limited information on how common antihypertensive agents, particularly calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and ?-blockers, effect pathophysiologic mechanisms of HFpEF. We propose a novel mechanistic investigation of the role of dihydropyridine CCBs compared to ?-blockers in targeting key physiologic abnormalities in HFpEF. HFpEF is characterized by unique physiologic abnormalities that may be differentially impacted by ?-blockers and CCBs. Excessive ?-adrenergic stimulation may be a driver of reduced aerobic capacity in HFpEF, which may respond favorably to ?-blockade. However, in HFpEF, ?-blockers may reduce cardiac output, particularly during exercise, contributing to impaired cardiac output reserve and aerobic limitations. ?-blockers may also have effects on the pattern of ventricular contraction and arterial load, impacting diastolic function. Similarly, CCBs may have beneficial effects related to vasodilation and reduction in late systolic load beyond their BP- lowering effect. However, CCB-induced vasodilation at rest may limit the vasodilatory reserve. Our goal is to assess the mechanisms by which CCBs and ?-blockers (commonly used antihypertensive agents in clinical practice), impact aerobic capacity and quality of life in HFpEF. We will compare the impact of a dihydropyridine CCB (amlodipine besylate 5-10mg daily) vs. a ?-blocker (metoprolol succinate 100-200mg daily) on arterial function, chronotropic reserve, vasodilatory reserve, and LV function, among 50 subjects with HFpEF in a randomized cross-over trial design. Participants will receive 4 weeks of each intervention, with a 1-week washout period in-between. Our mechanism-driven approach will enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF and characterize the physiologic potential of these common antihypertensive agents to reduce progression and improve symptom management in this disease.
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a critical public health problem, and there is an urgent need to identify therapies that target mechanisms of progression of HFpEF. We propose a novel investigation of the role of two common antihypertensive medications, amlodipine besylate and metoprolol succinate, in targeting key physiologic abnormalities in HFpEF. Our mechanism-driven approach will enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology of HFpEF and characterize the mechanistic potential of these common antihypertensive agents to reduce progression and improve symptom management in this disease.