This proposal addresses a gap in knowledge about the development of Conduct Disorder (CD) and its relationship to precursor, comorbid and subsequent conditions, such as Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD), -Depression, and Anxiety Disorder. In 1987-88, a sample was formed at two sites, of 177 prepubertal outpatient boys, most of whom had been referred for conduct problems and/or attention deficit-hyperactivity. These boys have now completed the third of four planned annual assessments. In Phase II of the research, this proposal aims to follow up the boys well into adolescence with an additional three annual assessments. The proposed study aims at elucidating the interaction between CD and its comorbid conditions, and relating the persistence and worsening of CD to the presence of other risk factors, such as antisocial personality in parents, poor parenting, deviant peer influences, the boys' intelligence and academic performance. Hypotheses concerning developmental precursors of later onset CD will also be tested, particularly Gittelman et al.'s (1985) assertion that uncomplicated ADHD is a significant precursor to late-onset CD and substance abuse. We propose to take advantage of the unusual opportunity to continue pilot testing over time the apparently robust association of low salivary cortisol and severe CD, identified during Year 2, and to assess salivary testosterone annually primarily as an index of puberty. The study will also allow for an evaluation of the long-term predictive utility of different symptoms and diagnostic criteria (DSM-III-R and possible alternatives) for the classification of disruptive behavior disorders in childhood and adolescence.

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National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
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Psychopathology and Clinical Biology Research Review Committee (PCB)
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University of Pittsburgh
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White, Helene R; Beardslee, Jordan; Pardini, Dustin (2017) Early predictors of maturing out of marijuana use among young men. Addict Behav 65:56-62
Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R et al. (2015) Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men. Psychol Addict Behav 29:552-63
Pardini, Dustin; Bechtold, Jordan; Loeber, Rolf et al. (2015) Developmental Trajectories of Marijuana Use among Men: Examining Linkages with Criminal Behavior and Psychopathic Features into the Mid-30s. J Res Crime Delinq 52:797-828
Pardini, Dustin; White, Helene R; Xiong, Shuangyan et al. (2015) Unfazed or Dazed and Confused: Does Early Adolescent Marijuana Use Cause Sustained Impairments in Attention and Academic Functioning? J Abnorm Child Psychol 43:1203-17
Burke, Jeffrey D; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista (2014) Functional outcomes of child and adolescent oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in young adult men. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 55:264-72
Kahn, Rachel E; Byrd, Amy L; Pardini, Dustin A (2013) Callous-unemotional traits robustly predict future criminal offending in young men. Law Hum Behav 37:87-97
Byrd, Amy L; Kahn, Rachel E; Pardini, Dustin A (2013) A Validation of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits in a Community Sample of Young Adult Males. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 35:
Burke, Jeffrey D (2012) An affective dimension within oppositional defiant disorder symptoms among boys: personality and psychopathology outcomes into early adulthood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 53:1176-83
Keijsers, Loes; Loeber, Rolf; Branje, Susan et al. (2012) Parent-child relationships of boys in different offending trajectories: a developmental perspective. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 53:1222-32
Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P et al. (2012) Identifying direct protective factors for nonviolence. Am J Prev Med 43:S28-40

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